Amy Gilbert & Suzanne RoybalReference & Instruction Librarians References, Quotes Some Formatting APA Style
APA Citation Style: What is it? • Method for indicating the source of quotes in articles, research papers, essays. • APA (American Psychological Association) Style is used for Science & Social Science disciplines. • Uses parenthetical references – (Author, date, p.#) in the text. • Includes a References page of sources.
What is a citation? On a References Page • the important info about a source… • author, title, name of journal, pages, publisher, date • that allows others to find it. In the your paper • A quote (“citing” a source)… • (Smith, 2002, p. 5). • that points to the entry on the References page... • that allows others to find it.
APA Style • APA Publication Manual • BF76.7 .P83 2010(6th Ed.) • 2 copies in the Reference area (1st floor) • 2 copies on Reserve • Style Tips & Electronic References: http://www.apastyle.org/styletips.html
Student Papers vs. Articles Student Papers typically have: • Title Page (with full title, author, school centered on page, short title, page number in header at top right) • May have abstract or summary (up to 350 words) • Introduction (can be review of the literature, include citations from secondary material)
Student Papers vs. Thesis/Articles • Methods, Results, Discussion • Figures, tables incorporated in text • May begin on a new page (as a chapter) • References Page (only sources cited in paper) • Appendix (scales, questionnaires, raw data) • May have wider left margin (for binding theses)
Headings (p. 62-63) • Papers having different sections • Introduction, Methods, Procedure, Results • 3 levels: Method Procedure Social network • Consult APA manual for proper format for number of headings (see p. 62) Main Heading 2nd level subheading 3rd level heading
Formatting: Seriation (lists) p. 63-65 • In sentence: lowercase letters • The participant's three choices were (a) working with another participant, (b) working with a team, and (c) working alone. • Symbols such as small squares, circles, etc. may be used in creating a bulleted list. May use bullets to separate three or more elements. • Internal commas – We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points; (b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high scorers, who scored more than 50 points.
Formatting: Seriation (lists) p. 63-65 • Itemized conclusions, procedural steps: use numeral followed by period, separating by line Using the learned helplessness theory, we predicted that the depresses and nondepressed participants would make the following judgments of control: • Individuals who... • Nondepressed persons... • Depressed persons...
Formatting: Numbers • Spell out numbers below 10, numbers beginning a sentence, common fractions, and universally accepted usage (p. 111-114): • three-dimensional; 15 traits on each of four checklists; one fifth of the class; the Ten Commandments • Use numerals for abbreviations or symbols (9%); addresses; dates; page references; decimals, measurements, and large numbers: "4.5 billion".
Formatting: Capitalization • First word after a colon in a complete sentence (p. 101-104): • The author made one main point: No explanation that has been suggested so far answers all questions. • Titles in-text (major words, proper nouns): • In her book, History of Pathology • The criticism of the article, "Attitudes Toward Mental Health Workers" • BUT NOT IN REFERENCES!!
Formatting: Italics • Titles of entire books & journals • The Elements of Style • Journal of International Marketing • Business Leadership Skills for the 21st Century • Words that could be misread: The small group performed well, the large group needed more time [a label, not a size] a designation not a size
In-text Quotes (p. 241) • Direct Quotes: "use quotation marks" • Give author's last name, date and page number • Miller (2001) wisely warns, “staring directly into the sun may cause blindness” (p. 5). • “Staring directly into the sun may cause blindness” (Miller, 2001, p. 5), but there are simple tools which allow a person to observe a solar eclipse. Notice period and comma go AFTER parentheses
In-text Quotes (p. 241) • Place reference (author, date, p. #) just after quote, or incorporate into sentence • A comparison of reaction times across two groups revealed differences (Walker, 2000, p. 72). • Walker (2000) compared reaction times across two groups (p. 72). • All sentence punctuation is placed after the reference.
Paraphrasing & Entire Works • For paraphrased quotes include the author, date • For mentions of entire works, include only author's last name and date: • In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000).
Secondhand Quotes (p. 178) • Try to find original! • Give the authors of the original work, "as cited in" the secondary source. • Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins & Haller, 1993) • …as he discussed in his results (Smith as cited in Brown, 2005). • In the References page, include only the secondary source. • Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
More In-text Quotes No page numbers given, such as a webpage (p. 171-172): • Use a section heading and/or the number of the paragraph in which the quote appeared: • (Myers, 2000, Conclusion section, para.1). • (Myers, 2000, para. 5) for more examples see the citation research guide
More In-text Quotes • Quotes longer than 40 words should be set off from the text by a ½ " indent (p.171): The Library of Congress website gives an interesting history for this institution. According to James Billington, the Librarian of Congress (2002): The institution serving as the national library of the United States is perhaps more fortunate than its predecessors in other countries. It has the Congress as its godfather...This stroke of good fortune has made it perhaps the most influential of all the national libraries of the world. (p. 2) Following text should not be indented. Do not end a paragraph with a block quote. Notice punctuation goes before parentheses! Only with block quotes
More In-text Quotes • 2 authors: all names every time: • Smith and Hernandez (2003) found • Use and in sentence • 3-5 authors: all names 1st time, et al. 2nd time: • . . .as indicated. (Smith, Jones, Brown, Martin, & Hernandez, 2003). • Smith, et al. (2003) found. . . • Use & in parentheses
More In-text quotes • 6 or more authors: first author's last name followed by et al. (p. 208): • . . .as indicated. (Smith, et al., 2003). • For works with no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report. (p. 176): • ("Study Finds," 1982). • (Harry Potter, 2005).
References • For each quote in the text, you MUST have a corresponding entry on your References page. • Only include items you quoted or paraphrased in the text of your paper on your Reference page. • Do NOT include items you just read.
References Page Commandments • First line is flush-left, second line is indented! • Double-spaced! • Alphabetize by author’s last name! • If no author, put title in place. • Do not number or bullet! • Be consistent!
References: Capitalization • Capitalize all major words in the journal title only. • Journal of Business Leadership • Books, articles: only capitalize the first letter of the title, and the first letter after a colon (except for proper nouns) • Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. • The adventures of Tom Sawyer.
References: Italics • Titles of entire books, journals, andvolume numbers are in italics. • Journal of Business Leadership, 5(3), 10-15. • Titles of articles, chapters, and issue numbers are plain.
References: Formatting • Some publisher’s locations can be listed without the country or state: • New York, Paris, London, Boston, Moscow, San Francisco • Use the official postal abbreviation for U.S. states: • CA, TX, WY
References: Books author. (date). Title of book. Place: Publisher. Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
References • Book: Author, A. (date). Title of book. Location: Publisher. • Journal Article: Author, A. (date). Title of article. Title of Entire Journal, vol(iss), page-range. Retrieval statement
Chapter in a Book • Wilson, R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Notice the different formatting for a book chapter. The chapter is not italicized and the use of pp for the page numbers. If you are using information from a book chapter and the book has chapters by different authors with one or more editors you should use this format to give correct credit.
References: Journal Articles • Journal Article: Author, A. (date). Title of article. Title of Entire Journal, vol(iss), page-range. Retrieval statement Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences in South America. Psychological Bulletin, 126(5), 910-924. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/bul/index.aspx
References: Journal Articles from Databases Allen, D. (1998). Record-keeping and routine nursing practice: A view from the wards. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(6), 1223. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00645.x/full
References: Websites • author. (date). Title of page. Retrieved date from, URL • National Park Service. (2012). Yellowstone National Park: History and culture. Retrieved September 30, 2012, from http://www.nps.gov/yell/historyculture/index.htm part of title only capitalized because a proper noun.
References: Websites Environmental Protection Agency. (2000). Globalwarming: Climate. Retrieved July 3, 2000, from: http://epa.gov/global warming/climate/index.html
References: Websites • No author, no date: GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/ • Use the title of the article if no author given. • Use (n.d.) if no date is given.
Thank You! Amy & Suzanne