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Social Security

Social Security. Dr. Prashant P. Ghodam Moderator: Dr. Ramesh Pawar. Framework. Definition of social security Introduction Need of social security Who needs Social Security Dimensions Workforce in India Coverage and types Organisations in India

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Social Security

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  1. Social Security Dr. Prashant P. Ghodam Moderator: Dr. RameshPawar

  2. Framework • Definition of social security • Introduction • Need of social security • Who needs Social Security • Dimensions • Workforce in India • Coverage and types • Organisations in India • Principal social security laws in India • Social Security Schemes (Organised ) • Social Security Schemes (Unorganised ) • National Safety Awards (Mines) • India & ILO • Challenges • References

  3. Definition “The protection which society provides for its members through a series of public measures, against the economic and social distress that otherwise would be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction of earnings resulting from sickness, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age and death, the provision of medical care, and the provision of subsidies for families with children”. -The International Labour Organisation

  4. Introduction • Social security system provide for basic income in case of :- • Unemployment • Illness & injury • Old age & retirement • Family responsibilities like pregnancy & childcare • Loss of family breadwinner

  5. Introduction • By providing health care, income security & social services, it enhances productivity & contributes to the dignity & full realisation of the individual. • It serves as fundamental element of social cohesion & help to ensure social peace, positive engagement with globalisation & economic development. • Despite these advantages only 20 % of worlds population have adequate social security coverage & more than half lack any kind of social security coverage at all.

  6. Need of social security Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.’ -Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

  7. Need of social security • Protects not just the subscriber but also his/her entire family • Prevent deprivation, assure the individual basic income for himself and dependents and protect from any uncertainties. • Schemes are designed to guarantee long-term sustenance to families when the earning member retires, dies or suffers a disability. • It helps people to plan their own future through insurance and assistance.

  8. Who Needs the Social Security • Sickness • Old-age • Women , Maternity • Survivor’s, Widowed, Children • Unemployed • Employment injury, Disability • Economically weaker section of society • People in crisis situation

  9. Dimensions • Social Health Protection • Employment and Livelihood Security. • Social Pensions • Food Security • Housing • Children’s education, nutritional status and health.

  10. Profile of Workforce in India Year 2009-10 (in million)

  11. Coverage and types • Provident fund and survivor insurance (deposit-linked) : Employees including those engaged in casual, part-time, daily wage, and contract work, with monthly earnings of 6,500 rupees or less working in firms with at least 20 workers. • Pension scheme: Employees who became members of the provident fund on or after November 16, 1995. Voluntary coverage is available. • Gratuity scheme: Employees of factories, mines, oil fields, Plantations, ports, railways, and businesses with at least 10 workers. • Social assistance: Needy older persons and poor households when the primary breadwinner dies. Separate informal-sector schemes exist for certain artisans and the rural landless.

  12. Organisations in India • Department of Social Security, established in India under ministry of labour, in 1964 • Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGE&T) in Ministry of Labour • Directorate General, Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes • Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) • National Academy For Training & Research in Social Security • Employees’ State Insurance Scheme of India • Employees" Provident Funds organisation  • Mathadi Workers welfare Board • Central Board for Workers Education (CBWE) • Organization of the Chief Labour Commissioner (CLC) • V. V. Giri National Labour Institute

  13. Social security laws in India • The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948  • The Employees’ Provident Fund & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and Amendment, 1996  • The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972:-  Provides 15 days wages for each year of service to employees who have worked for five years or more in establishments having a minimum of 10 workers • The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 :- Provide for 12 weeks wages during maternity as well as paid leave in certain other related contingencies. Laws Related to Working Hours, Conditions of Services and Employment • The Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986  • The Mines Act, 1952  • The Factories Act, 1948 

  14. Social Security Schemes (Organised sector) Employees’ State Insurance Scheme : Employees: 4.75% of wages, Employers: 1.75% of wages, State governments 12.5 % 1) Medical Benefit : Full medical care is provided to an Insured person and his family members. Medical care is also provided to retired and permanently disabled insured persons and their spouses on payment of a token annual premium of Rs.120/- 2) Sickness Benefit : In the form of cash compensation at the rate of 70 per cent of wages, for a max of 91 days in a year. Worker is required to contribute for 78 days in 6 months. • Extended Sickness Benefit :Extended upto 2 years in the case of 34 malignant and long-term diseases at rate of 80 per cent of wages. • Enhanced Sickness Benefit:

  15. Social Security Schemes (Organised sector) Employees’ State Insurance Scheme : 3) Maternity Benefit  :   4) Disablement Benefit : • Temporary disablement benefit : In case of employment injury. at the rate of 90% of wage. • Permanent disablement benefit : At the rate of 90% of wage in the form of monthly payment depending upon the extent of loss of earning capacity as certified by a Medical Board 5) Dependants' Benefit : At the rate of 90% of wage in the form of monthly payment. Death occurs due to employment injury or occupational hazards.

  16. Social Security Schemes (Organised sector) Employees’ State Insurance Scheme : Other Benefits : • Funeral Expenses : An amount of Rs.10,000/-  • Confinement Expenses : If confinement occurs at a place where necessary medical facilities under ESI Scheme are not available.  • Vocational Rehabilitation :To permanently disabled Insured Person for undergoing VR Training at VRS. • Physical Rehabilitation : In case of physical disablement due to employment injury.  • Old Age Medical Care :For Insured Person retiring on attaining the age of superannuation or under VRS/ERS and person having to leave service due to permanent disability insured person & spouse on payment of Rs. 120/- per annum.

  17. Social Security Schemes (Organised sector) Rajiv Gandhi ShramikKalyanYojana : This scheme of Unemployment allowance was introduced w.e.f. 01-04-2005. An Insured Person who become unemployed after being insured three or more years, due to closure of factory/establishment, retrenchment or permanent invalidity are entitled to :- • Unemployment Allowance equal to 50% of wage for a maximum period of upto one year. • Medical care for self and family from ESI Hospitals/Dispensaries during the period IP. • Vocational Training provided for upgrading skills - Expenditure on fee/travelling allowance borne by ESIC.. 

  18. Social Security Schemes (Organised sector) • Incentive to employers in the Private Sector for providing regular employment to the persons with disability : • Minimum wage limit for Physically Disabled Persons for availing ESIC Benefits is 25,000/-Employers' contribution is paid by the Central Government for 3 years. • Benefits & Contributory Conditions :Contributions are related to the paying capacity as a fixed percentage of the workers wages, whereas, they are provided social security benefits according to individual needs without distinction. Cash Benefits are disbursed by the Corporation through its Branch Offices (BOs) / Pay Offices (POs), subject to certain contributory conditions. 

  19. Social Security Schemes (Organised sector) Employee’s Provident Fund :-  Employers and employees both contribute 10- 12% of wages, Govt-Non  Establishment in following industries :- Jute, Beedi, Brick, Coir and Guar gum Factories The contributions are statutorily payable upto a prescribed wage ceiling, which is Rs 6500/-.  • The Employees' Provident Funds Scheme 1952 (EPF) Accumulation plus interest upon retirement, resignation , death. Partial withdrawals allowed for specific expenses such as house construction, higher education, marriage, illness etc. • The Employees' Pension Scheme 1995 (EPS): Employer-8.33%, Employee- None, Government- 1.16% Monthly benefits for superannuation/ retirement, disability, survivor, widow, children. Amount of pension based on average salary during the preceding 12 months • The Employees' Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme 1976 (EDLI): OnlyEmployer-0.5% In case of death of an employee who was member of the scheme, The family will get 20 times of the average wages of the last 12 months. maximum benefits will now be Rs. 1,30,000/-.

  20. Unorganised sector • Illiteracy and poverty • Cycles of seasonality of employment, not have stable and durable avenue of employment • Workforce is scattered and fragmented, different kind of jobs in different habitations & living together in compact geographical area • Poor working conditions, same productivity but wages les than formal sector • Rural areas- landless agricultural labourers, farmers, engaged in animal husbandry, fishing, horticulture, bee-keeping, forest workers, rural artisans. • Urban areas- Manual labourer in construction, carpentry, trade, transport, communication , street vendors, hawkers.

  21. Social Security Act and organisations (Unorganised) • National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) • National Advisory Council ( 2005) • Unorganised Worker’s Social Security Act, 2008 • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA),2005

  22. Social Security Act and organisations (Unorganised) • Unorganised Worker’s Social Security Act, 2008 Central Govt. Shall formulate and notify schemes- -Life and Disability -Health and maternity -Old age protection etc. • Creation of National and state boards • Registration of all unorganised workers

  23. Social Security Schemes ( Unorganised) • National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) • Universal Health Insurance Schemes (UHIS),2004. • AamAadmiBimaYojana 2007 • RashtriyaSwasthyaBimaYojana 2007 • JananiSurakshaYojana” (JSY) (National Maternity Benefit Scheme) • JanshreeBimaYojana (JBY), 2000 • KrishiSamajikSurakshaYojana 2001, • Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme” (IGNOAPS) • Sanjay Gandhi NiradharAnudhanYojana, 1980 • Varishta Pension BimaYojana in 2003 • Occupation-based welfare funds They are for: Beedi Workers, Limestone & Dolomite Mine Workers, Iron Ore, Chrome Ore & Manganese Ore Mine Workers, Mica Mine Workers & Cine Workers.

  24. Social Security Schemes ( Unorganised) • National Advisory Council ( 2005) • Revised Minimum Social Security Package (2012) • Maternity Benefit:- Pilot Indira Gandhi MatritvaSahyogYojana, modified to pay Rs.6000 in six instalments. • Health Benefit:- Extension of RSBY integration with Universal Health Coverage Plan • Life-cum-disability:- More enhanced than AamAdmiBimaYojana. • Old Age Pension Plan:- Contribution of 500 or 1000 from from worker, State and central Govt. each year

  25. Social Security Schemes ( Unorganised) • RashtriyaSwasthayaBimaYojana • A transparent scheme that lists the entitlements, administered through a smart card obviating the need for out of pocket expenses • Covers all BPL unorganized sector workers and their families (of five members), • a smart card will be issued • Beneficiary will be required to pay Rs 30 per annum as registration/ renewal fee. • Prescribed premium of Rs 750 per member-family will be borne by the Central and State Governments in the ratio of 75:25. • Benefits • cashless attendance to all covered ailments; • Hospitalization expenses, taking care of most common illnesses, • all pre-existing diseases to be covered, • transportation costs subject to prescribed limits payable to the beneficiary.

  26. Social Security Schemes ( Unorganised) • JanashreeBimaYojana • JanashreeBimaYojana provides insurance cover of Rs 20000 in case of natural death, Rs 50000 in case of death or total permanent disability due to an accident, and Rs 25000 in case of partial disability • Premium is Rs 200 per beneficiary ( 50% of the from the ‘Social Security Fund’ and 50% contributed by the beneficiary/State Government/nodal agency) • Eligibility criteria: • Persons in the age group of 18 to 60 years • Living below or marginally above the poverty line • Scheme is extended to a group of 25 members or more

  27. Challenges • Migration — 30 million workers in India are constantly on the move (migrant labour). • Political support is limited in certain areas. • Inadequate laws and legislation. • The poor are unable or unwilling to take up health insurance because of its cost, or lack of perceived benefits • Financial constraints — unorganised workers are low-wage earners. • Gender specific work — women are excluded in most trades in the unorganised sector.

  28. India & ILO • Government of India’s stand on ILO convention 182: • Compulsory Labour through Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976. (Slavery, Debt Bondage and Forced ) • Child Labour below 14 years in Hazardous Occupation is prohibited under the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986. • Complete prohibition on employment of children below 14 years and linking the age of the prohibition with the age under right to Free and Compulsory Education Act. • Prohibition of Working of Adolescents (14 to 18 years) in Mines, Explosives and hazardous occupations set forth in the Factories Act, 1948. • More strict punishment to the offenders and making the offences under the Act cognizable.

  29. National Safety Awards (Mines) • Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India instituted National Safety Awards (Mines) with a view to promote a competitive spirit amongst mine operators for the betterment of safety standards in mines and to give due recognition to outstanding safety performance at national level. • This award is generally given by the Hon'ble President of India every year and has generated considerable enthusiasm amongst the Mining community

  30. References • Viswanathan T K,The Unorganised Workers Social Security Act 2008, Ministry of Low And Justice,LegislativeDepartment;NewDelhi,the 31st Dec 2008 • Sosial Security Programs Throughout the World, Asia and the Pacific,2012, Social Security Administration, Social Security Obs+ervatory, Genava 22: March 2013 Available from: URL http://www.issa.int • Srivastava R S, A social protection floor for India; International Labour Office, ILO DWT for South Asia and ILO Country Office for India - New Delhi: ILO, 2013 Available from: URL:http:// www.ifrro.org • International Labour Organization [Online]. Available from: URL:http:// www.ilo.org • Government of India, Ministry of Labour and Employment, Available from: URLhttp://labour.gov.in. • EPFO, 59th Annual Report 2011-12; ESIC Annual Report, 2011-12, Available from: URLhttp://labour.nic.in/content/division/social-security.php


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