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World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water

World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water

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World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water

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  1. WMO World Meteorological OrganizationWorking together in weather, climate and water Since TECO 2010 in Helsinki… What was achieved ? Its meaning for a National Met Service: WIGOS our new perspective Bruxelles, October 2012 Bertrand Calpini President of CIMO B. Calpini CIMO

  2. CIMO mission Promote: • high quality observational data • world-wide compatibility by: • Defining technical standards, • Testing and calibration • Performing instrument intercomparisons, • Implementing quality control procedures. • Increasing expertise and Capacity-building for: • Improving quality of products and services B. Calpini CIMO

  3. In WMO High Priorities • in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) by improving systematic in situ observations and monitoring of climate • in WIGOS by improving the availability, usefulness, quality and utilization of observational data and products of all WMO observing systems B. Calpini CIMO

  4. CIMO working structure • (a) Standardization and Intercomparisons; • (b) Remote-sensing and New Technologies; • (c) Capacity-building. B. Calpini CIMO

  5. Siting of observing stations • QA observations relies also on proper siting and maintenance of instruments. • CIMO-XV approved a siting classification for observing stations • Tool for assessing which station to be used for climate services • The CIMO siting classification together with ISO TC 146 to become a common WMO-ISO standard. B. Calpini CIMO

  6. Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss

  7. Criteria vs Integration Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss Each sensor is quality flagged using the following categories: Fully compliant All WMO/CIMO requirements fulfilled, useable for climatology, meteorology and warning purposes Compliant Most requirements fulfilled, useable for meteorology and warnings Not compliant Some important WMO requirements not fulfilled! Be aware of the limitations and use data with caution e.g. for weather warnings.

  8. Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss Round table discussion & TECO 2012 Fully Compliant Not Compliant

  9. Rainfall Intensity • Final report on the WMO CIMO webpage B. Calpini CIMO

  10. Rain security network in the Alps / 2013 Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss EU (ISO) norm on rainfallintensityobs B. Calpini CIMO

  11. SPICE: Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment • WMO/CIMO priority for the 2010-2014 intersession period • Multi-sites experiment • Covers 5 continents, over twowinterperiods (2012-2014) • MeteoSwiss contribution: set up of a reference site in Alpine condition, jointlywith the Swiss Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF) • Construction of a DFIR • Hosting one reference composite (3 Ott Pluvio2) • Hostingadditional instruments under test • Usingexisting and additionalancillary information (wind, temperature, webcam, etc.)

  12. 15 potential sites over 5 continents • 1 single site in Central Europe/Alpine region: Weissfluhjoch

  13. Refercence site at Weissfluhjoch (2500 masl) Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss Test field DFIR Double Fence Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) from Norway (exemple)

  14. Temperature and RH B. Calpini CIMO

  15. Field Intercomparison of Thermometer Screens/Shields and Humidity Measuring Instruments (17*2 screens) LBOM VROT SDAV LCOC LLAN VYOU VTHY SCAE VDAV SYOU VEIG SSOC B. Calpini CIMO

  16. Gardaia Results • Even some low-cost screen appear with very good performance • Consequences for climate services: • Maximum daily temperature delay: up to 3hrs • Maximum temperature error: up to 1.5deg • Final report on the WMO CIMO webpage B. Calpini CIMO

  17. Radiosonde 8th WMO International Radiosonde Comparison. Yangjiang, Guangdong, China 12 July – 3 August 2010 Participants: 11 manufacturers from China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Switzerland, USA B. Calpini CIMO

  18. Tropical/subtropical moist conditions Tropopause & 16km Temperature >> -90deg B. Calpini CIMO

  19. B. Calpini CIMO

  20. WMO Intercomparisonof HQRS Yangjiang, China, 12 July - 3 August 2010 Radiation Error on upper-air Temperature Night Day J. Nash, T. Oakley, H. Vömel, LI Wei, WMO/TD-No. 1580, 2011

  21. Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss

  22. Longwave Radiation Profiles during the Night Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss T_n LUR_n LNR_n LDR_n

  23. Longwave Radiation Profiles during Night and Day Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss Nightflight: 23 Sep 2011, UT21:20 Day flight: 23 Sep 2011, UT10:13 and T_n LUR_n LNR_n LDR_n T_d LUR_d LNR_d LDR_d

  24. Kiehl and Trenberth Solar and Thermal Radiation Fluxes Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss Satellite Radiation Measurements Solar shortwave Radiation Thermal longwave Rad. SUR SDR LUR LDR LUR LDR SUR SDR 168 Kiehl and Trenberth Surface Radiation Measurements Poster – P3(7) Philipona, Kräuchi, Brocard, GRL, 2012 doi:10.1029/2012GL052087

  25. Measuring the Radiation Error in Flight 50 micron thermocouple temperature sensors unshaded and shaded

  26. Shaded and unshaded Temperature in Flight • Aluminium plate (brilliant / black) attached to SRS-C34 • Temperature sensors on both sides (5cm distance) • Alternately one sensor is exposed to the sun SRS C34 front view Reference sensor T sensor Publication in preparation

  27. 4. Radiation 27. September – 15. October 2010, PMOD/WRC Davos, Switzerland B. Calpini CIMO

  28. 87 participants • 40 countries • 99 pyrheliometers Final report on the WMO CIMO webpage B. Calpini CIMO

  29. MeteoSwiss Payerne - June 2012 Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss

  30. Surface Radiation budget Start UT 10:13 Start UT 21:20 SDR LDR SUR LUR

  31. Climate Monitoring: Biosphere Leaf Area Index Anomaly Land Surface Temperature Anomaly MODIS/TERRA satellite data from July & August 2003 versus 2000-2007 Stöckli et al. (2004) in Allen&Lord (2004) Nature, 432: 551-552

  32. 2. Weather Radar The Radar Quality Control and Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) Intercomparison Project B. Calpini CIMO

  33. 50 years of weather radar history in Switzerland 1st generation 1961 4th generation 2011

  34. Higher sensitivity Albis radar Losses (Tx, Rx, Radome, NF):old: 14.5 dBnew: 4.9 dB Transmitted power: old: 270 kWnew: 470 kW (235 per channel) loss of 0.6 dB 9 dB more sensitivity thanks to - receiver-over-elevation design, - digital receiver technology, and - cabin on tower

  35. 2 new sites in the Alps Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss

  36. Challenge vs the renewal of the weather radar network in the Alps

  37. Real-time radar raingauge merging soon operational Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss Radar + raingaugeusing co-kriging with external drift and advanced filtering techniques Radar onlyusing advanced radar processing adapted for mountainous region 8 August 200721:00-22:00 Image: Ioannis Sideris I Sideris, R Erdin, M Gabella, C Frei, U Germann

  38. Challenges • to inter-compare different algorithms for radar quality control with a focus on Quantitative Precipitation Estimation QPE applications • to develop a method to assess the overall quality of precipitation products from radars globally B. Calpini CIMO

  39. CIMO working structure • (a) Standardization and Intercomparisons; • (b) Remote-sensing and New Technologies; • (c) Capacity-building. B. Calpini CIMO

  40. Testbeds and Leadcenters B. Calpini CIMO

  41. Raman Lidar • Automatic system • Day- and night-time operation • H2O, aerosols, and temperature profiles • Towards improved operationnal availability One-year of humidity profiles

  42. Data availability Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHAFederal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss 2011 Technical problems (15%) Low clouds Rain Data availability (55%) Laser source Coolingsystem Air conditioning Technical problems: