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Ethical Issues in Animal Agriculture “A Welfare Perspective” Krista Nelson October 27, 2004 PowerPoint Presentation
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Ethical Issues in Animal Agriculture “A Welfare Perspective” Krista Nelson October 27, 2004

Ethical Issues in Animal Agriculture “A Welfare Perspective” Krista Nelson October 27, 2004

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Ethical Issues in Animal Agriculture “A Welfare Perspective” Krista Nelson October 27, 2004

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  1. Ethical Issues in Animal Agriculture • “A Welfare Perspective” • Krista Nelson • October 27, 2004

  2. Definitions Animal Welfare: state of well-being, in which at least basic needs are met and suffering is minimized (Spedding, 2000) Animal Rights: a belief system that animals intrinsically have the same rights to life and liberty as afforded to humans (Getz and Baker, 1990)

  3. Why do we care? • Legislation • Urbanization • Philosophers • Media • Disney Effect

  4. The Issues • Biological Functioning • Affective States • Natural Lives • Interlinked? The pig example • (Benson, 2004)

  5. The Five Freedoms • Freedom from hunger and thirst • Freedom from discomfort • Freedom from pain, injury or disease • Freedom to express normal behavior • Freedom from fear and distress • Developed from the Farm Animal Welfare Council (Spedding, 2000)

  6. Are current farm animal production systems ethical? Considerations: • Animal welfare • Is the animal harmed? • Are the animals’ needs met? • Human obligations • Are the animals being used responsibly? • What is the impact on the environment? • (Croney, 2004)

  7. Welfare in Beef Cattle Production Branding: hot iron, freeze, micro-chip Dehorning: genetics vs. mechanics Castration: Is it necessary? (Benson, Rollin, 2004)

  8. Branding and Dehorning

  9. Welfare in Dairy Cattle Production Housing: slope of surfaces, bedding material, stall dimensions Tail Docking: necessary? Calf Rearing: weaning, housing (Benson, Rollin, 2004) High Productivity: hunger, metabolic and physical exhaustion (Webster, 1995)

  10. Dairy Facilities

  11. Veal Calves

  12. Welfare in Swine Production Gestation Crates: 2 X 7 ft. Computerized feeding systems Floor Feeding Farrowing Crates: Decreased nesting behavior Piglets: Tail docking, castration, early weaning (Benson, Rollin, 2004)

  13. Gestation Crates

  14. Farrowing Crate

  15. Welfare in Poultry Production Laying Hens: Beak trimming, crowding, dust bathing, forced molting, social disorder Broilers: Fast growth (Benson, Rollin, 2004)

  16. Layers and Broilers

  17. Why do we have questionable production practices? Consumer demand: Safe, cheap, high quality, consistent food Efficiency: Labor, distribution, price Animal protection and care: From predators, environmental extremes, veterinary care, nutrition (Croney, 2004)

  18. Animal Welfare Reform Efforts 2001: OR ballot measure 179 proposed making it “a class A misdemeanor to confine farm pigs in enclosure or tether them in a manner that prevents them from turning around” • Aimed to ban gestation crates (excluded confinement for exam, testing & farrowing) • (Croney, 2004)

  19. Animal Welfare Reform Efforts • Animal Welfare Guidelines adopted by: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Pizza Hut • June 2002: FMI and the National Council of Chain Restaurants released guidelines for treatment and handling of animals used for food (FMI & NCCR members include Safeway, Walmart, Kroger’s Albertson’s, Applebee’s…) • (Croney, 2004)

  20. What can you do? Education: know what you are supporting with your purchasing power • E.g., organic ≠ cruelty free Vote with your pocketbook • Key to change is not to stop buying animal products, but to buy products that support animal welfare Niche markets “cruelty free”, “animal friendly” labels Support reasonable legislative efforts • (Croney, 2004)

  21. References Benson, G.J., and B.E. Rollin. 2004. The Well-being of farm animals challenges and solution. Blackwell Publishing. Aimes, Iowa. First ed. Croney, Candace. 2004. Oregon State University ANS 315. OSU Printing and Mailing Services. Getz, W.R., and F. H. Baker. 1990. Educational methodology in dealing with animal rights and welfare in public service. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3468-3474. Spedding, Collin. 2000. Animal Welfare. Earthscan Publications Ltd. Sterling, VA. Webster, John. Animal Welfare a Cool Eye Towards Eden. Blackwell Science, Ltd. Cambridge, MA.