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INTERNSHIP FORUM 2005,TOKYO

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  1. INTERNSHIP FORUM 2005,TOKYO Bruce A. Lumsden, Director, CECS Sujeet K. Chaudhuri, Professor, E&CE University of Waterloo, CANADA and Peter Franks, CEO, WACE, USA February 21, 2005

  2. WORK INTEGRATED LEARNING (WIL)-TRENDS & CHALLENGES IN CO-OPERATIVE( Co-op) EDUCATION - A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE

  3. PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Generic Description of Co-op • Co-op Education in Canada • A Case Study- UW Experience • International Trends/Directions/Findings • For New Start • References/ Q & A

  4. What is Co-operative Education? •An instrument for developing a nation's human resources • A strategy for helping students, businesses, and governments succeed in a global economy • A foundation for lifelong learning • A partnership

  5. What Is Co-operative Education? Experiential Learning • A structured educational program combining classroom learning with productive work experience in a field related to a student's academic or career goals • An integrated academic model • A partnership among students, educational institutions (faculty and administration) and employers, with specific responsibilities for each partner

  6. Definition Of Cooperative Education Co-op is an educational strategy integrating classroom curriculum with academically related work experience. It is called cooperative education since it requires the cooperation of the three parties involved: student, educational institution, and employer. It reinforces and expands critical thinking skills by combining the traditional academic curriculum with practical applications and experience (experiential learning).

  7. Industry/ Business Education Community Co-operative EducationA Partnership Community

  8. Co-op Employer Co-op Student University of Waterloo Co-operative EducationThree Partners

  9. Six Questions 1. What is the main reason to consider the concept of Co-operative Education? 2. What is the purpose of the program? 3. Who should be involved? 4. What is the role of those involved? 5. How should the program be organized and managed? 6. How should the activity be funded?

  10. Partnerships • Practice of partnership is critical for successful sustainable co-op • Partners Students Employers Academic Institutions Governments Alumni Within the institution Outside the institution • Common Purpose/Motive • Commitment • Performance • Communication

  11. What Are the Characteristics of Co-op? • Each work situation is developed and/or approved by the co-operative educational institution as a suitable learning situation. • Student is engaged in productive work, not merely observing. • Student receives remuneration for the work performed. • Student's progress on the job is monitored by the educational institution. • Student's progress on the job is supervised and evaluated by the employer. • The total co-operative work experience constitutes a significant portion of the academic program (normally between 30 and 50% of the total program).

  12. Co-op in Canada Institutions 1957 - 1 2003 - 85 Canada (46 University-36 Colleges) 2003 -28 Ontario (13 Universities-15 Colleges) three sizes – small, medium, large Students 74,742 Undergraduates in Canada - 49,352 Universities - 25,390 colleges 39,668 Undergraduates in Ontario - 20,953 Universities - 18,715 Colleges Graduate ?

  13. Co-op in Canada Programs 1957 - 1 2003 – 1000+ Applied Sciences Pure Sciences Social Sciences Humanities Fine Arts • Models alternating • internship • parallel • other • Job Types professional/occupational • entrepreneurial • humanitarian • international

  14. Benefits to Students • Integrate classroom theory with workplace practice • Earn money to pay for their education • Greater certainty about career choice prior to graduation • More informed about career opportunities • Perceive their own abilities and limitations better • Greater sense of autonomy, self-confidence, independence • Better understanding of workplace culture • Better matched to their jobs

  15. Investments by Students • Higher fees: UW co-op students pay an additional fee of $445, plus a work-report marking fee of $14 per term • Move every 4 months - always slightly off balance • More difficult to get in the flow of campus life, e.g., varsity sports • Takes longer to graduate (five years instead of four) • Increased stress as interviews occur in mid-term

  16. Benefits to Employers • Short Term • ability to hire students to complete project work • flexibility in hiring: additional help without full-time commitment • enthusiastic, motivated employees with new ideas and skills • cost-effectiveness • Long Term • ability to screen future employees • connection with the educational institution provides employers with a flexible means of meeting staffing needs and an effective source of full-time recruitment • contribution to the development of young professionals and to the national society and economy

  17. Investment by Employers • Initial lack of productivity; training required • Supervisor's time • Salary and benefits • Loss of trained employees through turnover and returning to school

  18. Benefits to Institution • Makes the institution more attractive and affordable for students • More efficient use of resources, physical plant, libraries, other facilities: UW operates year round • Attracts excellent students who are highly motivated • More relevant curriculum • Knowledge transfer from the workplace to the classroom • Builds links with business and industry

  19. Investments by Institution • Work-Term Related Costs • recovered from the students enrolled in co-op programs • Academic Delivery Costs • Courses are offered a second or third time in a year to accommodate the alternating work/academic terms. • Year-Round Operation Costs • Total extra costs at UW are estimated to be $23.5 million per annum

  20. Financial Paybacks • Taxes on income earned • Higher starting salaries • Fewer draw on government loans • Smaller loans • Faster loan repayment • Lower default rates

  21. Beginnings of Co-op at Waterloo • Founded in 1957 • Small Quiet Community in Ontario • Mixture of Industry and Business • Small Liberal Arts College • End of W.W.II - Economic Growth • Visionary Community Leaders

  22. North America

  23. Lake Erie -Lake Ontario Southwest Ontario Region

  24. From Cedar Swamp...

  25. …to Present

  26. Visionary Founders

  27. The University • 1,000 acre campus • 21,500 full and part-time undergraduates • 2,400 full and part-time graduate students • 787 faculty members • 2,100 staff members • $375 million budget • $100 million external research funding • 112,000 alumni in 135 countries

  28. Tatham Centre for Co-operative Education & Career Services

  29. Facts About UW Co-op • Largest Co-op Program - enrolment of 11,000 students • Over 60% of all full time undergraduates are Co-op • Over 100 Academic Programs in six academic faculties • Co-op mandatory in some programs, optional in others • UW is 63% of the Ontario university co-op system and 28% of the Canadian university co-op system • UW is 30% of total post-secondary Co-op enrolment in Ontario and 14.5% of total post-secondary Co-op enrolment in Canada • Students earned approximately $119 million on work terms in 2002

  30. More Facts About UW Co-op • 3,500 active employers • 90% of co-op jobs are in Ontario • 75% of jobs are in the private sector and 25% in the public sector • 862 UW co-op students participated in work terms outside Canada in 2002/2003, 556 worked in the U.S. • UW hired 541 co-op students in 2003

  31. Growth in Co-op Enrolment at UW

  32. Percentage of UW Students in Co-op and Regular, 2003-04

  33. A Mosaic of Programs • 1957 - 1 2003 - 100+ • ARTS • Applied Studies with 20 majors and 4 specializations • Chartered Accountancy • Management Accountancy • Digital Communication • Economics (Applied) • English (Literature, Rhetoric & Professional Writing) • Anthropology • Political Science • Psychology • Sociology

  34. A Mosaic of Programs • Applied Health Sciences • Health Studies and Gerontology • Kinesiology • Recreation & Leisure Studies • Environmental Studies • Architecture • Environment & Business • Environment & Resource Studies • Geography • Planning

  35. A Mosaic of Programs • Engineering • Chemical • Civil • Computer • Electrical • Environmental (Chemical & Civil) • Geological • Mechanical • Mechatronics • Nanotechnology • Software • Systems Design

  36. A Mosaic of Programs • Mathematics • Accountancy (Chartered & Management) • Actuarial Science • Applied Math (Engineering Electives, Physics Electives) • Applied Statistics with Engineering Electives • Bioinformatics • Business Administration & Mathematics (Double Degree) • Statistics • Combinatorics & Optimization • Computer Science (Bioinformatics, Digital Hardware, Information System options) • Mathematics/Business Administration option • Mathematical Sciences • Pure Math (Electrical Engineering Electives) • Operations Research • Pure Math/Finance option • Math Teaching option • Scientific Computation/Applied Mathematics Statistics • Software Engineering

  37. A Mosaic of Programs • Science • Biology • Biochemistry • Bioinformatics • Biotechnology/Chartered Accountancy • Biotechnology/Economics • Chemistry • Computational Science • Earth Sciences • Environmental Sciences • Physics • Psychology • Science & Business • Science Teaching (Biology, Biochemistry, Chemistry)

  38. Career Preparation Programs Co-op 101 • Co-op Survival Skills • Resume Writing • Co-op Survival Skills: The Sequel • Employer/Student Perspective • Interview Skills: An Overview • Co-op Work Report Writing • Critical Incidents in the Workplace • Workplace Safety: Know the Issues

  39. Additional Career Preparation Programs • Career Decision Making • Letter Writing • Interview Skills: The Basics, Preparing for Questions, Selling Your Skills • Successfully Negotiating Job Offers • Writing CVs and Cover Letters • Personality Dimensions • Job Search Strategies • Business Etiquette • Starting Your Own Business!: The Basics, Next Steps • Preparing for Graduate Studies • Law School Bound • Are you thinking about Med School?

  40. % of Employers that Hire Students Of 3,000 active employers: 60% hire 1 student 30% hire 2, 3, or 4 students 10% hire 5 or more students

  41. International Co-op Work Term # of Students January – April 2003 256 May – August 2003 201 September – December 2003 221 January – April 2004 205 Total 883

  42. Weekly Earnings Survey Work Term Levels Please Note: This survey represents a calendar year, N/A- Not Applicable, Issued January 2004

  43. Academic Credit for the Work Experience • Credit for the work experience • Academic enhancement • Leadership • Ethics/Law • Intellectual Property • Risk management • Managing change • Communication • Critical analysis • Professional responsibility • Health/Safety

  44. The Impact of Co-op Quality of Students Reputation Relationships Spin off companies (IP policy) Community Transfer of knowledge Acceptance by other institutions

  45. What has been successful ? • The idea itself • Growth • Enrollment of students • Diversity of programs • Quality of students • Relationships (employers) • human resource strategy • knowledge transfer • Reputation • Alumni, Leaders of Tomorrow • Community benefits

  46. Concerns from the Partners • From students • about process • control • the busyness • From employers • about the process • the model • technology • From the University • about the idea itself • funding • benign acceptance

  47. Benefits of Cooperative Education Higher retention rate and higher job satisfaction of co-op employees Ability for employers to test co-op students Steady supply of trained staff at reduced costs Excellent training ground for future professionals – provides students with real-world experience International Co-op programs train students with global perspectives Grassroots support is generated for building cooperative education programs in both industrialized and developing countries

  48. International Scope • Practiced in over 40 countries around the world utilizing different models that must adapt well with the educational institutions schedule and format • The concept of Co-op or work based education in its broader context is growing rapidly - particularly in developing nations due to the improved way it prepares youth for productive lives which in turn improves the nation’s economy • Models • Sandwich • Alternating • Parallel • Others based on local needs

  49. Recent Developments in Co-op Education • Boundaries between universities & workplace as learning sites becoming increasingly blurred – new partnerships emerging: universities, corporations & governments • In Indonesia, emerging from its ‘link and match’ program to more developed form • In Malaysia, associated especially with its major program of developments in IT and multi-media • In Thailand, associated with the emergence of new universities: SUT & Walailak University