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January 13, 2011 PowerPoint Presentation
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January 13, 2011

January 13, 2011

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January 13, 2011

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  1. January 13, 2011 • What legacy did Vietnam leave behind? • Did you do your homework • 12 Essential Topics of the Legacy of Vietnam • Homework: Study (Test Tuesday)

  2. Henry Kissinger • National Secretary Advisor who conferred with Nixon and came up with Vietmanization • Over next three years, the number of troops goes from 500,000 to 25,000

  3. Kissinger & Nixon’s Vietnamization Policy • Aimed for “peace with honor” • Maintaining dignity in face of withdrawal • Preserve U.S. clout • Demanding S.V. government remain in tact • N.V. and Vietcong wanted S.V. government to step aside and U.S. to leave • War continued even with negotiations • Secretly ordering bombing of neighboring countries • Nixon appealed to silent majority – Average Americans who quietly supported the president

  4. My Lai Massacre Shocks Americans • November 1969 – Americans learn of the event • March 1968 – U.S. platoon massacred innocent civilians in small village of My Lai (Northern S.V.) • Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was searching for Vietcong and found no enemy • Troops rounded up villagers and shot more than 200 (mostly women, children, and elderly men) • Troops insisted they were only following orders • Only Calley convicted and imprisoned

  5. Nixon Orders Invasion of Cambodia • April 1970 – Nixon announces invasion of Cambodia to clear out N.V. and Vietcong supplies • College students across the nation burst out in protest

  6. First Student Strike in U.S. History • Kent State University in Ohio – massive student protest that led to burning of the ROTC building • Local mayor called in the National Guard • Guards fired live ammunition into crowd of campus protestors who were hurling rocks at them • Wounded 9, killed 4 (2 were innocent bystanders)

  7. Congress Repeals Tonkin Gulf Resoution • Cambodia policy cost political support • Bombing then invading without notifying Congress • December 1970 – Congress repealed Tonkin Gulf Resolution • Support declined further with the Pentagon Papers • Revealed plans for entering war even as Johnson promised he would not send troops • Showed that there was no plan to end war as long as the N.V. persisted • Confirmed American beliefs that the government was lying to them

  8. A Quick Look at 1972 • Public opinion toward war and grueling stalemate lead Nixon to end the war

  9. Christmas Bombings • President promised peace and won reelection • Peace proved to be elusive • Theiu rejected U.S. plans and peace talks broke off • The President unleashed bombing campaigns against largest cities in N.V. • Such “Christmas Bombings” stopped Christmas Day • Congress, Moscow, and Beijing called to end the war • January 1973 – U.S. signs agreement of peace • N.V. would remain in S.V. • Nixon promised that if peace agreement was broken, U.S. would respond with full force

  10. S.V. surrenders to N.V. • War raged on without the U.S. • March 1975 – N.V. launched full-scale invasion of S.V. • U.S. provided economic aid only • President Ford refused to send any more troops (according to U.S. opinion) • April 1975 – N.V. rolled into Saigon and captured the city • S.V. surrendered to N.V.

  11. Vietnam Soldiers Receive Cold Homecoming • No brass band • No victory parades • No cheering crowds • Many faced indifference • Some faced hostility • Many suffered PTSD • Some began abusing drugs or alcohol • Several committed suicide • Memorial will be unveiled in 1982 in effort to honor those men/women who served

  12. Cambodia Erupts in Civil War • Communists soon imprisoned S.V. in reeducation or labor camps • Communists imposed their rule throughout the land • 1.5 million people fled Vietnam • People of Cambodia suffered brutal civil war in which a communist group (Khmer Rouge) seized power in 1975 • Executed professionals, anyone educated, or tied to foreigners • Said to have killed 1 million Cambodians

  13. Congress Passes War Powers Act • November 1973 – president must inform Congress within 48 hours of sending troops into a hostile area without a declaration of war • Troops may remain no longer than 90 days unless approved by Congress

  14. The Draft is Abolished • Government abolished the draft • Draft had stirred antiwar sentiment

  15. Lost Faith in Government • Americans now pause and consider risks to their own interests before deciding whether to intervene in affairs of other nations • Contributed to an overall cynicism among Americans about their government and political leaders that persists today • Grew suspicious of government leaders