Education Principles for a Partnership in Asthma Care Learning strategies that contribute to successful asthma management Presented by :
This session will cover: • Need for effective patient education • Barriers to learning • Current educational concepts • Styles of learning • Age-appropriate teaching / learning strategies • Effective communication and interviewing skills • Selecting appropriate educational material • Health literacy
Activity: Barriers to Learning Working in small groups: • Identify a recorder/reporter • Brainstorm to identify possible barriers to learning • Be prepared to share your ideas • List all ideas on flip chart paper No fair looking at your notes!
Barriers to Learning and Adherence • Conflicting information • Uncomfortable environment • Uninformed instructor • Attitude of instructor • Previous negative experiences with learning • Education level • Understanding level: material is inappropriate or too complex • Reading comprehension • Hearing/Visual impairment • Language - English is a second language • Too much information at one time
Barriers to Learning for Adults • Some patients have grown accustomed to the limitations of uncontrolled asthma, help them redefine what normal is. • Teach your patients how to communicate with health care professionals • Adherence (Compliance) in the long-run depends on early and continued success.
Patient Education Current asthma management approaches require patients and families to:
Importance of Patient Education • Mechanism through which patients learn to effectively manage their asthma • Powerful tool for helping patients gain the motivation, skill, and confidence to control their asthma Education should be integrated into all aspects of asthma care. Education should be integrated into all aspects of asthma care. Education should be integrated into all aspects of asthma care.
Key Concepts in Asthma Education Why is this especially true in patients with asthma?
Turning Education into Action For someone to effectively manage their asthma they need to:
Benefits of Self-Management Skills Reduction of urgent care visits and hospitalizations Reduction of asthma-related health care costs Improvement in health status
Learning Styles A learning style is the unique collection of individual skills and preferences that affect how a person perceives, gathers and processes information.
Visual Learners • Gather information best by looking, reading, and watching • May tune out spoken directions and favor illustrated explanations or charts • May take notes even when they have printed notes on the desk in front of them
Auditory Learners • Learn well by discussing ideas • May learn better by being read written information out loud • Are easily distracted by noises • Like background music to muffle interrupting sounds
Kinesthetic (Active) Learners • Learn effectively through touch, movement and space. • Learn skills by imitation and practice.
Effective Interviewing Skills • Show attentiveness (eye contact, attentive listening) • Give nonverbal encouragement (nodding agreement, smiling) • Give verbal praise for effective management strategies • Use open-ended questions:
Non-verbal communication Is recognizable in the initial three seconds after meeting someone for the first time. Can continue through the entire interaction. Accounts for approximately 70% of a communication episode. Can impact the success of communication more acutely than the spoken word.
Attention Span Information from: Pediatric Asthma Promoting Best Practice: Guide for Managing Asthma in Children. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Age-appropriate teaching strategies For Preschool Children: • Keep teaching sessions short (no more than 15 minutes) • Schedule sessions close together • Use small group sessions with peers help • Use short, simple, direct messages • Provide visual and physical stimuli, use bright bold colors and pictures • Use active learning techniques • Allow to play-act with dolls and puppets • Encourage child to participate in selecting between teaching – learning options
Age-appropriate teaching strategies For School-Aged Children: • Use analogies to increase understanding • Teach Skills • Use materials showing peers dealing with similar problems • Provide opportunities for private instruction • Provide opportunities for group interaction and games • Session can last for up to 30 minutes • Spread sessions apart to allow for practice of new skills • Provide support
Teaching Approaches for Children Treatment issues include: • Remembering to take medication • Handling exercise induced problems • Recognizing symptoms and requesting treatment • Avoiding triggers • Involve the child as much as possible, including development of the asthma plan.
Adherence (Compliance) Issues For Teens: • Medication use and teen lifestyle • The need to conform vs. the need to avoid triggers • Social situations • Physical activity • Feeling of immortality • Lack of understanding from others
Strategies for Teaching Teens Adolescents should receive ALL information Teens and young adults tend not to look after themselves and rarely ask for help. This is the result of four factors: • Independence • Rebellion • Peer Influence • Poor or non-compliance/adherence
Strategies for Teaching Teens • Use one-on-one instruction when possible • Respond best to peers • Use group discussion with role-play and interactive games • Use problem solving activities • Use various forms of visual educational tools
Strategies for Teaching Teens • Clarify terminology • Provide sincere, honest personal contact • Treat them with respect, acknowledge their feelings • Empower them to make their own decisions and to take responsibility for their own care • Provide simple approaches to therapy
Strategies for Teaching Adults Adults Learn Best When: • Learning is related to an immediate need, problem or deficit • Learning is voluntary and self-regulated • Learning is person-centered and problem-centered • Learning is self-controlled and self-directed • The role of the teacher is one of facilitator • Information and assignments are pertinent • New material draws on past experiences and is related to something the learner already knows
Strategies for Teaching Adults Adults Learn Best When: • The threat to self is reduced to a minimum in the educational situation • The learner is able to participate actively in the learning process • The learner is able to learn in a group • The nature of the learning activity changes frequently • Learning is reinforced by application and prompt feedback. Source: Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning
Strategies for Teaching Adults • Build on and incorporate their experiences into their education plan. • Present factual information that can help them make decisions and they prefer self-direction.
Older Adults • Alterations in physiological functioning can lead secondarily to changes in learning ability • Slower processing time • Persistence of stimulus (afterimage) • Confuse a previous symbol or work with a new one • Decreased short-term memory • Increased test anxiety – anxious about making mistakes • Altered time perception • I’ll worry about that tomorrow Older adults constitute approximately 12% of the US population. By 2030, this number is expected to increase to 21%.
Teaching Strategies for Older Adults • Compensate for visual changes • Environment that is well-lit • Visual Aids in large print, well spaced • Avoid blue, blue-green and violet hues • Compensate for hearing loss • Eliminate extra noise • Speak face to face • Short sessions with frequent breaks • Check psychomotor skills • Allow increased time to process and react to information
Teaching Strategies for all ages • Teach Problem Solving Skills • Define problem in behavioral terms • Divide stressful events into smaller, manageable tasks • View “failure” as learning via feedback • Generate & evaluate solutions • Make contingency plans