Introduction to Pharmaceutical Validation • www.parasshah.weebly.com
Contents • What is Validation? • When is validation needed? • Some Purposes of Validation • Approaches to validation • Scope of validation • Advantages of validation • Organization for validation
Types of Documentation • Validation Master Plan • Types of Process Validation • Prospective validation • Concurrent validation • Retrospective validation • Revalidation
Prerequisites for process validation • Qualification • Design qualification • Installation qualification • Operational qualification • Performance qualification • References
What is Validation? Definition : • Validation is the documented act of proving that any procedure, process, equipment, material, activity or system actually leads to the expected result. ISO definition : • Validation is the confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled.
What is Validation? • According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the goal of validation is to: “establish documented evidence which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes.”
Method Validation : • Method validation is the process of establishing the performance characteristics and limitations of a method and the identification of the influences which may change these characteristics and to what extent. It is also the process of verifying that a method is fit for purpose.
When is validation needed? • Before introduction of a new method into routine use. • Whenever the conditions change for which a method has been validated, e.g., instrument with different characteristics • Whenever the method is changed, and the change is outside the original scope of the method.
Some Purposes of Validation • To accept an individual sample as a member of a population under study. • To admit samples to the measurement process. • To minimize later questions on sample authenticity. • To provide an opportunity for resampling when needed.
Approaches to validation • Two basic approaches: • Evidence obtained through testing (prospective and concurrent validation), and • Analysis of accumulated (historical) data (retrospective validation) • Whenever possible, prospective validation is preferred. • Retrospective validation is not applicable to sterile products
Both prospective and concurrent validation, may include: • extensive product testing, which may involve extensive sample testing (with the estimation of confidence limits for individual results) and the demonstration of intra- and inter-batch homogeneity; • simulation process trials; • challenge/worst case tests, which determine the robustness of the process; and • control of process parameters being monitored during normal production runs to obtain additional information on the reliability of the process.
Scope of validation • Validation requires an appropriate and sufficient infrastructure including: • organization, documentation, personnel and finances • Involvement of management and quality assurance personnel • Personnel with appropriate qualifications and experience • Extensive preparation and planning before validation is performed • A specific programme for validation activities in place
Validation done in a structured way according to documentation including procedures and protocols. • Validation should be performed: • for new premises, equipment, utilities and systems, and processes and procedures; • at periodic intervals; and • when major changes have been made. • Validation in accordance with written protocols.
A written report on the outcome to be produced. • Validation over a period of time, e.g. • at least three consecutive batches (full production scale) to demonstrate consistency. (Worst case situations should be considered.) • Demonstrate suitability for new manufacturing formula or method
Process, materials and equipment to prove consistent yield of a product of the required quality • Manufacturers to identify what validation work is needed • Significant changes (facilities, equipment, processes) - should be validated • Risk assessment approach used to determine the scope and extent of validation needed
Advantages of validation: • During the process the knowledge of process increases • Assures the repeatability of the process • Assures the fluency of production • Assures that the product is continuously according to the marketing authorisation • Decreases the risk of the manufacturing problems • Decreases the expenses caused by the failures in production • Decreases the risks of failing in GMP • Decreases the expenses of the every day production even though the validation itself will create expenses
Organization for Validation • The qualification and validation work can be organized by employing one or more of the following structures : • The consultant • The task force • The dedicated group. • Ideally there should be a department in the organization. But if it is not possible then, these alternative approaches are used for the work.
The Consultants : • On the commercial basis several consultants undertake the work. • Consultants can apply the experience gained in the other companies. • The persons with consultants may not be permanent employees, they may be on contractual basis. • There is a risk of incomplete job and extra expenses, if the validation job is not completed by the consultants within the bounds of time and cost.
The task force : • The task force concepts refers to organisation structure with in the company in which persons proficient in different fields are drawn from different departments. • Usually, persons are drawn from different departments. • The departments are production, engineering , quality assurance, research and developments. • The head of the committee is resposible for validation work.
The dedicated group : • In the dedicated group members from the following departments are selected : • Production • Engineering • Calibration laboratory • Quality control laboratory • Maintenance • HVAC • Product development
Department interaction : • Once the validation team has been constituted and mission have been formalized, the team will interact with different departments which are : • Research and development department • Engineering department, • Production department, • Maintenance department, • Quality control department, • Quality assurance department.
Types of Documentation • Validation Master Plan (VMP) • Validation protocols (VP) • Validation reports (VR) • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
The Validation Master Plan could consist of: • Approval page and table of contents • Introduction and objectives • Facility and process description • Personnel, planning and scheduling • Responsibilities of committee members
Process control aspects • Equipment, apparatus, processes and systems to be validated • Acceptance criteria • Documentation e.g. validation protocols and reports • SOPs • Training requirements
Protocol • Protocol consists of : • Objectives of the validation and qualification study • Site of the study • Responsible personnel • Description of the equipment • SOPs • Standards • Criteria for the relevant products and processes
Report • Report consists of : • Title • Objective of the study • Refer to the protocol • Details of material • Equipment • Programmes and cycles use • Details of procedure and test methods
Validation Master Plan Principle Validation in general requires a meticulous preparation and careful planning of the various steps in the process. In addition, all work involved should be carried out in a structured way according to formally authorized standardized working and administrative procedures.
In addition validation is characterized by: • Multidisciplinary approach: A specific characteristic of validation work is that it requires the collaboration of experts of various disciplines such as pharmacists, technologists, metrologists, chemical analysts, microbiologists, engineers, experts on Q.A. validation etc.. • Time constraint: Generally validation work is submitted to rigorous time schedules. These studies are always the last stage prior to taking new processes, facilities into routine operation. • Costs: Validation studies are costly as they require time of highly specialized personnel and expensive technology.
Purpose • The VMP should present an overview of the entire validation operation, its organizational structure, its content and planning. The core of the VMP being the list / inventory of the items to be validated and the planning schedule. • A VMP helps management: to know what the validation programme involves with respect to time, people and money, and to understand the necessity for the programme;
A VMP helps all members of the validation team: to know their tasks and responsibilities. • A VMP helps GMP inspectors: to understand the firm's approach to validation and the set up an organisation of all validation activities.
Definition • A Validation Master Plan is a document that summarises the firm's overall philosophy, intentions and approach to be used for establishing performance adequacy.
Scope • All validation activities relating to critical technical operations, relevant to product and process controls within a firm should be included in a VMP. This includes qualification of critical manufacturing and control equipment. • It should comprise all Prospective, Concurrent, Retrospective Validations as well as Re-validations. • In case of large projects like the construction of a new facility, often the best approach is to create a separate VMP. (In such situations the VMP should be part of the total project management.)
Format and Content • The VMP should be a summary document and should therefore be brief, concise and clear. It should not repeat information documented elsewhere but refer to existing documents such as Policy Documents, SOP's and Validation Protocols/Reports. • The VMP should be agreed by management.
A VMP should contain data on the following subjects/proposed chapters. Introduction • Firm's validation policy, general description of the scope of those operations covered by the VMP, location and schedule (including priorities). Plant / Process / Product Description • Provides a cross reference to other documents. A rationale for the inclusion or exclusion of validations, for the validation approach and the extent of validation should be included.
Organizational Structure of All Validation Activities • Personnel responsibility for the VMP, protocols of individual validation projects, validation work, report and document preparation and control, approval / authorization of validation protocols and reports in all stages of validation processes, tracking system for reference and review, training needs in support of validation. Specific Process Considerations • Under this heading specific characteristics / requirements of the plant / process etc. that are critical for yielding a quality product and need extra attention may be briefly outlined here.
List of Products / Processes / Systems to be Validated • All validation activities comprised in the VMP should be summarized and compiled in a matrix format. Such matrix should provide an overview and contain: • All items covered by the VMP that are subject to validation describing the extent of validation required [i.e. IQ, OQ and/or PQ]. It should include validation of analytical techniques which are to be used in determining the validation status of other processes or systems, • The validation approach, i.e. Prospective, Retrospective or Concurrent, the Re-validation activities, actual status and future planning.
Key Acceptance Criteria • statement on key acceptance criteria for the items listed under above. Documentation Format • The format to be used for protocols and reports should be described or referred to. Required SOP's • List of relevant SOP’s should be presented.
Planning & Scheduling • An estimate of staffing (including training needs), equipment and other specific requirements to complete the validation effort should be described in the VMP. A time plan of the project with detailed planning of subprojects. This time plan could be included in the above mentioned matrix A VMP requires regular updating. Change Control • A statement of the company's commitment to controlling critical changes to materials, facilities, equipment or processes (including analytical techniques), should be included.
Types of Process Validation • Experimental approach • Prospective validation • Concurrent validation • Analysis of historical data • Retrospective validation • Revalidation • Periodic revalidation • Revalidation after change
Prospective validation • carried out during the development stage by means of a risk analysis of the production process, which is broken down into individual steps. • These are then evaluated on the basis of past experience to determine whether they might lead to critical situations. • Where possible critical situations are identified, the risk is evaluated, the potential causes are investigated and assessed for probability and extent, the trial plans are drawn up, and the priorities set.
The trials are then performed and evaluated, and an overall assessment is made. • If, at the end, the results are acceptable, the process is satisfactory. Unsatisfactory processes must be modified and improved until a validation exercise proves them to be satisfactory. • This form of validation is essential in order to limit the risk of errors occurring on the production scale, e.g. in the preparation of injectable products.
Concurrent validation • carried out during normal production • This method is effective only if the development stage has resulted in a proper understanding of the fundamentals of the process • The first three production-scale batches must be monitored as comprehensively as possible. • The nature and specifications of subsequent in-process and final tests are based on the evaluation of the results of such monitoring. • This careful monitoring of the first three production batches is sometimes regarded as prospective validation. • Concurrent validation together with a trend analysis including stability should be carried out to an appropriate extent throughout the life of the product.
Retrospective Validation • Retrospective validation involves the examination of past experience of production on the assumption that composition, procedures, and equipment remain unchanged • such experience and the results of in-process and final control tests are then evaluated. • Recorded difficulties and failures in production are analyzed to determine the limits of process parameters.
A trend analysis may be conducted to determine the extent to which the process parameters are within the permissible range. • Retrospective validation is obviously not a quality assurance measure in itself, and should never be applied to new processes or products. It may be considered in special circumstances only, e.g. when validation requirements are first introduced in a company.
Retrospective validation may then be useful in establishing the priorities for the validation programme. If the results of a retrospective validation are positive, this indicates that the process is not in need of immediate attention and may be validated in accordance with the normal schedule. • For tablets which have been compressed under individual pressure-sensitive cells, and with qualified equipment, retrospective validation is the most comprehensive test of the overall manufacturing process of this dosage form. On the other hand, it should not be applied in the manufacture of sterile products.
Revalidation • Revalidation is needed to ensure that changes in the process and/or in the process environment, whether intentional or unintentional, do not adversely affect process characteristics and product quality. • Revalidation may be divided into two broad categories: • Revalidation after any change having a bearing on product quality. • Periodic revalidation carried out at scheduled intervals.
Revalidation after changes : • Revalidation must be performed on introduction of any changes affecting a manufacturing and/or standard procedure having a bearing on the established product performance characteristics. • Such changes may include those in starting material, packaging material, manufacturing processes, equipment, in-process controls, manufacturing areas, or support systems (water, steam, etc.). Every such change requested should be reviewed by a qualified validation group, which will decide whether it is significant enough to justify revalidation and, if so, its extent.
Revalidation after changes may be based on the performance of the same tests and activities as those used during the original validation, including tests on sub processes and on the equipment concerned. Some typical changes which require revalidation include the following: • Changes in the starting material(s) : Changes in the physical properties, such as density, viscosity, particle size distribution, and crystal type and modification, of the active ingredients or excipients may affect the mechanical properties of the material; as a consequence, they may adversely affect the process or the product.
• Changes in the packaging material : e.g. replacing plastics by glass, may require changes in the packaging procedure and therefore affect product stability. • Changes in the process : e.g. changes in mixing time, drying temperature and cooling regime, may affect subsequent process steps and product quality.
Changes in equipment : e.g. measuring instruments, may affect both the process and the product; repair and maintenance work, such as the replacement of major equipment components, may affect the process. • Changes in the production area and support system : e.g. the rearrangement of manufacturing areas and/or support systems, may result in changes in the process. The repair and maintenance of support systems, such as ventilation, may change the environmental conditions and, as a consequence, revalidation/requalification may be necessary, mainly in the manufacture of sterile products. • Unexpected changes and deviations may be observed during self-inspection or audit, or during the continuous trend analysis of process data.