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Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process. Identify the various sources of information used for personne PowerPoint Presentation
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Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process. Identify the various sources of information used for personne

Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process. Identify the various sources of information used for personne

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Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process. Identify the various sources of information used for personne

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  1. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage LearningAll rights reserved.

  2. Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be able to • Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process. • Identify the various sources of information used for personnel selection. • Compare the value of different types of employment tests. • Illustrate the different approaches to conducting an employment interview. • Describe the various decision strategies for selection. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  3. Matching People and Jobs • Selection • The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings. • Selection Considerations • Person-job fit: job analysis identifies required individual competencies (KSAOs) for job success. • Person-organization fit: the degree to which individuals are matched to the culture and values of the organization. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  4. The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits” FIGURE6.1 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  5. Steps in the Selection Process FIGURE6.2 Note: Steps may vary. An applicant may be rejected after any step in the process. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  6. The Selection Process • Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information • Reliability • The degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures. • Validity • Degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  7. HIGH RELIABILITYTEST RETEST APPLICANT SCORE SCORE Smith 90 93 Perez 65 62 Riley 110 105 Chan 80 78 VERY LOW RELIABILITY TEST RETEST APPLICANT SCORE SCORE Smith 90 72 Perez 65 88 Riley 110 67 Chan 80 111 Reliability as Stability over Time © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  8. HIGH RELIABILITY APPLICANT Rater #1 Rater #2 Rater #3 Smith 9 8 8 Perez 5 6 5 Riley 4 5 5 Chan 8 8 8 VERY LOW RELIABILITY APPLICANT Rater #1 Rater #2 Rater #3 Smith 9 5 6 Perez 5 9 4 Riley 4 2 7 Chan 8 4 2 Reliability as Consistency(Interrater Reliability) © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  9. Valid and Invalid Tests © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  10. Approaches to Validation • Criterion-related Validity • The extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates with, important elements of work behavior. • A high score indicates high job performance potential; a low score is predictive of low job performance. • Concurrent Validity • The extent to which test scores (or other predictor information) match criterion data obtained at about the same time from current employees. • High or low test scores for employees match their respective job performance. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  11. Approaches to Validation (cont’d) • Predictive Validity • The extent to which applicants’ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/ employees after they have been on the job for some indefinite period. • A high or low test score at hiring predicts high or low job performance at a point in time after hiring. • Validity (or Correlation) Coefficient • A number ranging from 0.00, denoting a complete absence of relationship, to 1.00 and to -1.00, indicating a perfect positive and perfect negative relationship, respectively. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation Scatterplots FIGURE6.3 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  13. Approaches to Validation • Cross-validation • Verifying the results obtained from a validation study by administering a test or test battery to a different sample (drawn from the same population). • Validity generalization • The extent to which validity coefficients can be generalized across situations. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  14. Approaches to Validation (cont’d) • Content validity • The extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job. • Example: typing tests, driver’s license examinations • Construct validity • The extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait. • Are difficult to validate • Example: creative arts tests, honesty tests © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  15. Application Forms Online Applications Biographical Information Blanks (BIB) Background Investigations Polygraph Tests Integrity and Honesty Tests Graphology Medical Examinations Employment Tests Interviews Sources of Information about Job Candidates © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  16. Application Forms • Application date • Educational background • Experience • Arrests and criminal convictions • National origin • References • Disabilities • EEO and at-will statements Weighted application blank (WAB) The WAB involves the use of a common standardized employment application that is designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful employees. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  17. Online Applications • An Internet-based automated posting, application, and tracking process helps firms to more quickly fill positions by: • Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant pool • Collecting and mining resumes with keyword searches to identify qualified candidates • Conducting screening tests online • Reducing recruiting costs significantly © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  18. Biographical Information Blanks • Sample Questions: • At what age did you leave home? • How large was the town/city in which you lived as a child? • Did you ever build a model airplane that flew? • Were sports a big part of your childhood? • Do you play any musical instruments? © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  19. Background Checks • Negligent hiring • The failure of an organization to discover, via due diligence, that an employee it hired had the propensity to do harm to others • Sources of Information • Social Security verification • Past employment • Educational verification • Criminal records • Motor vehicle records • Credit check • Military records © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  20. Most Common Types of Background Checks FIGURE6.4 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  21. Background Checks (cont’d) • Checking References • Telephone, mail, and e-mail checks • Specific job-related information • Letters of reference • Online computerized databases • Privacy Act of 1974 • Requires signed requests for reference letters and signed consent to background checks. • Applies to both educational and private employers. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  22. 1 Sample Reference-Checking Questions Just the Facts What were the candidate’s dates of employment? What was the candidate’s title? What were the candidate’s general responsibilities? What is your relationship to the candidate (peer, subordinate, superior)? How long have you known the candidate? On the Job How would you describe the overall quality of the candidate’s work? Can you give me some examples? (For superiors) What areas of performance did you have to work on? What would you say are the candidate’s strengths? What would you say are the candidate’s weaknesses? How would you compare the candidate’s work to the work of others who performed the same job? What kind of environment did the candidate work in? How much of a contribution do you think the candidate made to your company or department? How would you describe the candidate’s ability to communicate? © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  23. 1 Sample Reference-Checking Questions (cont’d) On the Job (cont’d) How does the candidate handle pressure/deadlines? How well does the candidate get along with coworkers? How well does the candidate get along with managers? How well does the candidate supervise others? Can you give me your impressions of his or her management style? Describe the candidate’s success in motivating subordinates. How does the candidate handle conflict situations? Based on the candidate’s performance with your company, do you think he or she would be good in the type of position we’re considering him or her for? What motivates the candidate? How ambitious is he or she? The Bottom Line Why did the candidate leave your company? Would you rehire this person? Would you recommend this candidate for this type of position? What type of work is the candidate ideally suited for? Were there any serious problems with the candidate that we need to be aware of before making a hiring decision? Do you have any additional information to share with us about this candidate © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  24. Background Investigations (cont’d) • Organizations using credit reports must: • Check state laws to see if credit reports can legally be used. • Advise and receive written consent from applicants if a report will be requested. • Provide a written certification to the consumer reporting agency as to the purpose of the report. • Provide applicants a copy of the consumer report as well as a summary of their rights under the CCRRA. • Must provide an adverse-action notice a person if that person is not hired and contact information related to the reporting agency. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  25. Integrity Test Question Examples FIGURE6.5 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  26. Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988) • Use of “lie detectors” is largely prohibited. • Act requires qualified examiners. • Act requires disclosure of information where used. • Encouraged employers’ use of paper and pencil integrity and honesty tests. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  27. Background Investigations (cont’d) • Graphology • The use of a sample of an applicant’s handwriting to make an employment decision. • Medical Examinations • Given last as they can be costly. • Ensure that the health of an applicant is adequate to meet the job requirements. • Provides a baseline for subsequent examinations • ADA requires all exams be job-related and conducted after an employment offer is made. • Testing for illegal drugs is allowed. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  28. Drug Testing • Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 • Testing for illegal drugs is required applicants and employees of federal contractors. • Questions about the efficacy of testing • Why spend large sums on testing when… • testing for drugs doesn’t appear to make the workplace safer or improve employee performance? • few applicants actually test positive and alcohol abuse creates more problems in the workplace? © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  29. Employment Tests • Employment Test • An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other individuals. • Pre-employment testing hasthe potential for lawsuits. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  30. 2 Best Practices for Employee Testing and Selection Employers should administer tests and other selection procedures without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age (40 or older), or disability. Employers should ensure that employment tests and other selection procedures are properly validated for the positions and purposes for which they are used. The test or selection procedure must be job-related and its results appropriate for the employer’s purpose. While a test vendor’s documentation supporting the validity of a test may be helpful, the employer is still responsible for ensuring that its tests are valid under UGESP. If a selection procedure screens out a protected group, the employer should determine whether there is an equally effective alternative selection procedure that has less adverse impact and, if so, adopt the alternative procedure. For example, if the selection procedure is a test, the employer should determine whether another test would predict job performance but not disproportionately exclude the protected group. To ensure that a test or selection procedure remains predictive of success in a job, employers should keep abreast of changes in job requirements and should update the test specifications or selection procedures accordingly. Employers should ensure that tests and selection procedures are not adopted casually by managers who know little about these processes. A test or selection procedure can be an effective management tool, but no test or selection procedure should be implemented without an understanding of its effectiveness and limitations for the organization, its appropriateness for a specific job, and whether it can be appropriately administered and scored. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  31. Classification of Employment Tests • Cognitive Ability Tests • Aptitude tests • Measures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills. • Achievement tests • Measures of what a person knows or can do right now. • Personality and Interest Inventories • “Big Five” personality factors: • Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  32. Is That Your Final Answer? FIGURE6.6 Answers: 1. a, 2. c, 3. d, 4. d, 5. c, 6. c, 7. b © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  33. CPI Personality Facets and Sample Items • Agreeableness • Trust—I believe people are usually honest with me. • Conscientiousness • Attention to detail—I like to complete every detail of tasks according to the work plans. • Extroversion • Adaptability—For me, change is exciting. • Neuroticism • Self-confidence—I am confident about my skills and abilities. • Openness to Experience • Independence—I tend to work on projects alone, even if others volunteer to help me. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  34. CPI Personality Facts and Sample Items FIGURE6.7 Agreeableness • Consideration—I like to do little things for people to make them feel good. • Empathy—I take other people’s circumstances and feelings into consideration before making a decision. • Interdependence—I tend to put group goals first and individual goals second. • Openness—I do not have to share a person’s values to work well with that person. • Thought agility—I think it is vital to consider other perspectives before coming to conclusions. • Trust—I believe people are usually honest with me. Conscientiousness • Attention to detail—I like to complete every detail of tasks according to the work plans. • Dutifulness—I conduct my business according to a strict set of ethical principles. • Responsibility—I can be relied on to do what is expected of me. • Work focus—I prioritize my work effectively so the most important things get done first. Extroversion • Adaptability—For me, change is exciting. • Competitiveness—I like to win, even if the activity isn’t very important. • Desire for achievement—I prefer to set challenging goals, rather than aim for goals I am more likely to reach. • Desire for advancement—I would like to attain the highest position in an organization some day. • Energy level—When most people are exhausted from work, I still have energy to keep going. • Influence—People come to me for inspiration and direction. • Initiative—I am always looking for opportunities to start new projects. • Risk-taking—I am willing to take big risks when there is potential for big returns. • Sociability—I find it easy to start up a conversation with strangers. • Taking charge—I actively take control of situations at work if no one is in charge. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  35. CPI Personality Facts and Sample Items (cont’d) FIGURE6.7 Neuroticism • Emotional control—Even when I am very upset, it is easy for me to control my emotions. • Negative affectivity—I am easily displeased with things at work. • Optimism—My enthusiasm for living life to its fullest is apparent to those with whom I work. • Self-confidence—I am confident about my skills and abilities. • Stress tolerance—I worry about things that I know I should not worry about. Openness to Experience • Independence—I tend to work on projects alone, even if others volunteer to help me. • Innovativeness/creativity—I work best in an environment that allows me to be creative and expressive. • Social astuteness—I know what is expected of me in different social situations. • Thought focus—I quickly make links between causes and effects. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  36. Classification of Employment Tests (cont’d) • Physical Ability Tests • Must be related to the essential functions of job. • Job Knowledge Tests • An achievement test that measures a person’s level of understanding about a particular job. • Work Sample Tests • Require the applicant to perform tasks that are actually a part of the work required on the job. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  37. The Employment Interview • Why the interview is so popular: • It is especially practical when there are only a small number of applicants. • It serves other purposes, such as public relations • Interviewers maintain great faith and confidence in their judgments. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  38. Interviewing Methods • Nondirective Interview • The applicant determines the course of the discussion, while the interviewer refrains from influencing the applicant’s remarks. • Structured Interview • An interview in which a set of standardized questions having an established set of answers is used. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  39. Interviewing Methods (cont’d) • Situational Interview • An interview in which an applicant is given a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it. • Behavioral Description Interview (BDI) • An interview in which an applicant is asked questions about what he or she actually did in a given situation. • Panel Interview • An interview in which a board of interviewers questions and observes a single candidate. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  40. 3 Sample Situational Interview Question QUESTION: It is the night before your scheduled vacation. You are all packed and ready to go. Just before you get into bed, you receive a phone call from the plant. A problem has arisen that only you can handle. You are asked to come in to take care of things. What would you do in this situation? RECORD ANSWER: SCORING GUIDE: Good: “I would go in to work and make certain that everything is OK. Then I would go on vacation.” Good: “There are no problems that only I can handle. I would make certain that someone qualified was there to handle things.” Fair: “I would try to find someone else to deal with the problem.” Fair: “I would go on vacation.” © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  41. Interviewing Methods (cont’d) • Computer Interview • Using a computer program that requires candidates to answer a series of questions tailored to the job. • Answers are compared either with an ideal profile or with profiles developed on the basis of other candidates’ responses. • Video and Digitally-Recorded Interviews • Using video conference technologies to record and evaluate job candidates’ technical abilities, energy level, appearance, and the like before incurring the costs of a face-to-face meeting. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  42. Variables in the Employment Interview FIGURE6.8 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  43. Ground Rules for Employment Interviews • Establish an interview plan • Establish and maintain rapport • Be an active listener • Pay attention to nonverbal cues • Provide information freely • Use questions effectively • Separate facts from inferences • Recognize biases and stereotypes • Control the course of the interview • Standardize the questions asked © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  44. Variables in the Employment Interview FIGURE6.9 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  45. Diversity Management: Are Your Questions Legal? • No questions are expressly forbidden. • Questions related to race, color, age, religion, sex, or national origin can be hazardous. • Questions are acceptable if job-related, asked of everyone, and do not discriminate against a protected class (e.g., females) • Consult EEOC and FEP information when constructing guidelines for interviewers © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  46. 5 Appropriate and Inappropriate Interview Questions APPROPRIATE QUESTIONS INAPPROPRIATE QUESTIONS National origin What is your name? What is the origin of your name? Have you ever worked under a What is your ancestry? different name? Do you speak any foreign languages that may be pertinent to this job? Age Are you over 18? How old are you? If hired, can you prove your age? What is your date of birth? Gender (Say nothing unless it involves a Are you a man or a woman? bona fide occupational qualification.) Race (Say nothing.) What is your race? Disabilities Do you have any disabilities that Do you have any physical defects? may inhibit your job performance? When was your last physical? Are you willing to take a physical What color are your eyes, hair, etc.? exam if the job requires it? Height and (Not appropriate unless it is a bona How tall are you?weight fide occupational qualification.) How much do you weigh? Residence What is your address? What are the names/relationships How long have you lived there? of those with whom you live? © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  47. 5 Appropriate and Inappropriate Interview Questions (cont’d) APPROPRIATE QUESTIONS INAPPROPRIATE QUESTIONS Religion (You may inform a person of the Do you have any religious affiliation? required work schedule.) Military record Did you have any military What type of discharge did you education/experience pertinent receive? to this job? Education and Where did you go to school? Is that a church-affiliated school?experience What is your prior work experience? When did you graduate? Why did you leave? What are your hobbies? What is your salary history? Criminal record Have you ever been convicted Have you ever been arrested? of a crime? Citizenship Do you have a legal right to work Are you a U.S. citizen? in the United States? Marital/family What is the name, address, and Are you married, divorced, single? status telephone number of a person Do you prefer Miss, Mrs., or Ms.? we may contact in case of an Do you have any children? How old emergency? are they? © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  48. “Can-Do” and “Will-Do” Factors in Selection Decisions FIGURE6.10 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  49. Reaching a Selection Decision • Selection Considerations: • Should individuals to be hired according to their highest potential or according to the needs of the organization? • At what grade or wage level to start the individual? • Should selection be for employee-job match, or should advancement potential be considered? • Should those not qualified but qualifiable be considered? • Should overqualified individuals be considered? • What effect will a decision have on meeting affirmative action plans and diversity considerations? © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  50. Selection Decision Strategies Clinical Approach Subjectivity Statistical Approach Objectivity Compensatory Model - Average Multiple Cutoff Model - Minimum Multiple Hurdle Model- Sequential © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.