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Endogenous Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change: examples and lessons learned

Endogenous Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change: examples and lessons learned

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Endogenous Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change: examples and lessons learned

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  1. Endogenous Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change: examples and lessons learned Mozaharul Alam, National Project Coordinator, Bangladesh NAPA Project, and Research Fellow, BCAS and Atiq Rahman, Executive Director, BCAS Seminar on Development and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change 14-16 June 2005, Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

  2. About Presentation General overview of Bangladesh Context of Vulnerability: spatial and temporal aspects Examples of endogenous technologies for reducing vulnerabilities Existing coping strategies to CC variability and extreme events identified by NAPA Preparation Process Lessons learned Concluding Remarks

  3. Located between 20O34/ to 26O38/ north latitude and 88O01/ to 92O42/ east longitude, part of Bengal Basin; • Area is 147.57 thousand sq. km • 80 percent Floodplain • 12 percent Hilly area • 8 percent Pleistocene Terrace; • Total population is about 140million with very low GDP, 360 US$ per capita; • Climate is characterized by • high temperature,heavy rainfall, often-excessive humidity, seasonal variations General Overview

  4. Socio-economic Situation • Human Development Index has improved from 0.35 in 1980 to 0.509 in 2002, still very low; • Income poverty has decline from about 59 percent to 49 percent over the last decade; • Income poverty in the rural area is higher compare to national level income poverty – 53 percent • Human poverty trend shows considerable improvement over the last two decades – 61 to 35 percent. General Overview

  5. General Overview Bangladesh is at the lower end of the Himalayan drainage ecosystem Comprises only 8 percent of the GBM system and carry about 92 percent of water flow Average monsoon flow varies from 80,000 t0 140,000 cubic meter/sec This is second to Amazon System 1.7 to 2.4 billion tons of sediments carried by the river system through Bangladesh

  6. General Overview There are 230 rivers in the country and 53 are transboundary in nature The transboundary rivers have been greatly interfered – diversion of water in dry season Virtually – Bangladesh is a conglomerate of islands Very little structurally solid rocks, mostly flexible mud 8 percent of area is water

  7. 1998 Context of Vulnerability: spatial and temporal aspects

  8. Context of Vulnerability: spatial and temporal aspects

  9. Context of Vulnerability: spatial and temporal aspects Coast area of Bangladesh is very prone to cyclone and storm surges Coastal island and sea facing area are more prone compare to other coastal area Intensity of cyclone varies and damage as well

  10. Context of Vulnerability: spatial and temporal aspects Saline affected area is showing increasing trend Surface water salinity, salinity in the groundwater are major concern

  11. Dry food Drinking water Seeds • Structural measures • Multipurpose cyclone centres: emergency shelter • Non-structural measures • Storage of food (dry and drinking water) and seeds underneath soil using jar Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: cyclone and storm surges • These structural and non-structural measures safe life and provide emergency support before relief operation • Can not protect livestock and other assets

  12. Floating Agriculture: Baira (hydroponics) • Traditionally been practicing by some communities in southern districts • Recently this technology has been introduced in other wetland area through organized extension under environmental-developmental projects (RVCC, SEMP etc.) Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: flood/wetland

  13. BCAS is working in this area since 1992 • Working with peoples in promoting livelihoods • Over the last 4 years BCAS is promoting extension of Baira technology under RVCC and SEMP project Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: flood/wetland

  14. Baira preparation • Collection of materials (water-hyacinth and other aquatic vegetation like ipomoea fistulosa) • Making a floating bed (May to July) • Crop selection • Mostly vegetables, both summer and winter • Cultivation on Baira platform • Ball or cushion like structure • Seedling raising Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: flood/wetland

  15. Growing vegetables • Seeding raising is more lucrative than vegetables growing • People also grow vegetables for own consumption and sell surplus to the market • On average profit is about 120 to 130 percent Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: flood/wetland

  16. Protecting house and homestead • Measures varies by social groups • Raising plinth of houses • plant flood tolerant trees and plants around their houses and homesteads to protect them from flood impacts and erosion Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: flood/wetland

  17. Sluice Gate Embankment Village Isamati River • Structural Measures • Coastal Embankment • Promotion of salt tolerant variety • Bangladesh has developed salt tolerant crop variety able to tolerate 8 dS/m • Improper management and ill design increase sedimentation and lead to drainage congestion Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: Salinity Source of Diagram: Jennifer Pouliotte, University of Guelph and Dr. Barry Smit, University of Guelph

  18. Land flooded with saline water • Change from rice to shrimp farming • Initiatives supported by government Endogenous technologies for adaptation to vulnerability context: Salinity Source of Diagram: Jennifer Pouliotte, University of Guelph and Dr. Barry Smit, University of Guelph

  19. Existing Coping Strategies • Shrimp Farming (saline and brackish) • Poly Culture (shrimp and rice farming) • Salt Panning • Collection of drinking water from long distance • Rain water harvesting • Keep the land fallow • Migration • Construction of Polder/embankment • Afforestation • Take shelter during cyclone following the signals Examples of Existing Coping Strategies Identified by NAPA Preparation Process

  20. Existing Coping Strategies • Floating agriculture during flooding (monsoon) season • Development of salinity tolerant species by BARI and BRRI • Establishment of shallow tube-well for irrigation to reduce impact of salinity • Adoption of sort duration crop variety based on situation • Selection of variety, supplementary irrigation and drainage depending on season and temperature • Artificial management of temperature such as use of wet jute bags over shade, use exhaust fan (hot weather), electric bulbs for heating (winter season) Examples of Existing Coping Strategies Identified by NAPA Preparation Process

  21. Endogenous technologies for adaptation is context specific • Results depend on socio-economic condition of the community, level of motivation, marketing possibility of product • Availability of raw material, for example water hyacinth and aquatic vegetation • Need mediator/promoter for wider dissemination • Training is necessary • Trust building is must, for example trust on early warning on cyclone and storm surge • Challenges • Transfer to other area, need action research, need to understand community and ecosystem • Functionality of these technologies under additional stress (CC)?? – need further work Lessons Learned

  22. Both hard and soft measures are necessary for better results • All vulnerable sectors (water, agriculture, housing, health etc) of ecosystem/locality need to be addressed, should be people centred, to promote sustainable development • Limitation of endogenous and existing technologies need to be assessed in the context of climate change and variability • Technologies for adaptation to address future climate change can be built on existing practices and measures related to climate variability and extreme Concluding Remarks

  23. Researchers and staff of • Component 2.2.1 of Sustainable Environment Management Programme (SEMP) • Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Acknowledgement

  24. Thank You