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The Supreme Land of the Land. Chapter 5, Section 3. The Goals of Our Government. To form a more perfect union Unite the 13 states under an effective national government To establish justice
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The Supreme Land of the Land Chapter 5, Section 3
The Goals of Our Government • To form a more perfect union • Unite the 13 states under an effective national government • To establish justice • Fair ways to settle disputes between: individuals, individuals and government, states, national and state governments • To insure domestic tranquility • A peaceful society where people are protected from unlawful acts of others • To provide the common defense • Protect citizens from attacks by other countries
The Goals of our Government (cont.) • To promote the general warfare • Conditions that will benefit ALL Americans • To secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity • Gives people more freedoms (where they work, where they live, what they believe, representatives in government) • These six ideas were listed in the Preamble to the Constitution. • Following the Preamble, there are seven articles, listing various rules and ideas of the national government.
Article 1 • The Legislative Branch • Describes the organization and powers of the national legislature – United States Congress ( two houses – House of Representatives and Senate) • Congress makes laws and although they have to be approved by the President, Congress can override a veto • Congress can coin money, declare war, and regulate trade (also make “necessary and proper” laws) • Article 1 also contains all the things that Congress does not have the power to do, to please Anti-Federalists
Article 2 • The Executive Branch • The President – leader, but authority is based on the consent of the people • The President cannot: • Make laws, he just executes them • Declare war, but he is head of the armed forces • The President can: • Make treaties • Nominate judges • Appoint ambassadors to foreign countries • All have to be approved by the Senate first
Article 3 • The Judicial Branch • Supreme Court • Judges appointed by President, approved by Senate • Court has final say in all cases involving the Constitution • Judges may serve for life if they have “good behavior” • If lower courts disagree, the case can be appealed to the Supreme Court for a final decision
Article 4 • The States • Each state is required to honor laws of other states • Ex. New York’s marriage license would be valid in any of the other 12 states • Respecting other states’ laws helps preserve states’ rights and reduced possibility of conflict
Article 5 • Amending the Constitution • The Framers knew that people would want to change the Constitution. • The put instructions into the Constitution so that future generations could do so as they please. • First, you suggest the change, and three-fourths of the states must approve the amendment.
Article 6 • The Supremacy of the Constitution • Officials in state and national governments are required to take an oath to support the Constitution as “the supreme law of the land.” • No state law may violate the Constitution. • State laws and federal (national) laws should not conflict. • If they do, the national law takes priority.
Article 7 • Ratification • The last article of the Constitution establishes the procedure of ratification, or approval, of the Constitution.
Amendments to the Constitution • 27 amendments follow the seven articles • The first ten amendments were ratified in 1791 and they are called the Bill of Rights • They were added in response to the concerns of the Anti-Federalists. • After that, only 17 other amendments have been made.
Limited Government • Federalism – the division of power between the states and the federal, or national, government • Some powers belong to state, some to national government, and some shared by both • Concurrent powers are shared by both governments • Reserved powers are powers that the Constitution neither gives to Congress nor denies to the states – establishing schools and to form police organizations • Checks and balances gives each brand of government ways to limit powers of the other two • Ex. President can check the actions of Congress by vetoing bills that he/she believes are not in best interest of nation • Impeach - accuse