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Thrust into Space

Thrust into Space

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Thrust into Space

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  1. Thrust into Space • Maxwell W. Hunter, II

  2. Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion • Momentum is conserved, equation 1-1

  3. Force • Force, equation 1-2 • Weight, equation 1-3

  4. Energy • Kinetic energy, equation 1-4 • Ratio of kinetic energy of gun to bullet, equation 1-5

  5. Guns as Rockets • Paris Gun, WW I • Change in velocity, equation 1-6

  6. Rocket Engines • Thrust, equation 1-7

  7. Rocket Nomenclature • Figure 1-1

  8. Fuel Consumption • Specific impulse of engine, equation 1-8 • Effective exhaust velocity, equation 1-9

  9. Power • Power expended, equation 1-10 • Effective power, equation 1-11

  10. Internal Energy Release • Exit velocity, equation 1-12 • Combustion temperature, equation 1-13 • Velocity of molecule, equation 1-14

  11. Rocket Energy Efficiency • Figure 1-2

  12. Nozzle Altitude Effect • Figure 1-3

  13. Nozzle Altitude Performance • Figure 1-4

  14. Pump Power • Pump power, equation 1-15 • Pump power for both propellants, equation 1-16

  15. The Rocket Equation • Change in velocity, equation 1-17 • Impulsive velocity, equation 1-18

  16. The Rocket Equation • Figure 1-5

  17. Useful Load • Useful load, equation 1-19

  18. The Rocket Equation • Figure 1-6

  19. Energy Efficiency • Kinetic energy of useful load, equation 1-20 • Total energy expended by exhaust, equation 1-21

  20. External Energy Efficiency • Figure 1-7

  21. Effect of Initial Velocity • Increase of kinetic energy of useful load, equation 1-22 • Total kinetic energy expended, equation 1-23

  22. External Energy Efficiency • Figure 1-8

  23. Ballistics • Flat earth, no drag • From Newton’s Laws of Motion, equations in 2-1 • Range vs. velocity, equation 2-2

  24. Energy • Potential energy, equation 2-3 • Ratio of kinetic energy increase to initial kinetic energy, equation 2-4

  25. Forces During Motor Burning • Velocity loss due to gravity, equation 2-5 • Figure 2-1

  26. Airplane Lift/Drag Ratio • Airplane energy, equation 2-6 • Cruising efficiency, equation 2-7 • Velocity equivalent of energy used, equation 2-8

  27. Airplane Lift/Drag Ratio • Figure 2-2

  28. Automobile Lift/Drag Ratio • Figure 2-3

  29. Ship Lift/Drag Ratio • Figure 2-4

  30. Solid-Propellant Rockets • Figure 2-5

  31. Solid Rockets • Acceleration of guns or rockets, equation 2-9 • Honest John Missile

  32. Required Acceleration • Figure 2-6

  33. Four Decades of Development • Figure 2-7

  34. Theoretical Propellant Performance

  35. Elliptical Orbit Nomenclature • Figure 3-1

  36. Circular Orbits • Gravity as a function of distance, equation 3-1 • Velocity of satellite, equation 3-2 • Period, equation 3-3 • Period, equation 3-4

  37. Potential Energy • Potential energy, equation 3-5 • Maximum potential energy, equation 3-6

  38. Escape Velocity • Escape velocity, equation 3-7

  39. The Vis-Vita Law • Kinetic and potential energy, equation 3-8 • Conservation of angular momentum, equation 3-9 • Perigee velocity vs. escape velocity at perigee, equation 3-10 • Velocity, equation 3-11

  40. The Vis-Vita Law • Velocity and circular velocity, equation 3-12 • Orbital period, equation 3-13

  41. Optimum Ballistic Missile Trajectories • Figure 3-2

  42. Global Rocket Velocities • Figure 3-3

  43. Hohmann Transfer • Figure 3-4

  44. Velocities Required to Establish Orbit • Figure 3-5 • Potential energy and kinetic energy, equation 3-14

  45. Planet Escape Velocities and Radii

  46. Satellite Escape Velocities and Radii

  47. Gravity Losses • Effective gravity, equation 3-15

  48. Large, Solid Propellant Motors • Figure 3-6

  49. The Planets Orbital Data

  50. The Planets Orbital Data