Connecting with Students (for teachers) Presented by David Martin, Behavior Consultant
THIS PRESENTATION WILL FOCUS ON EIGHT STRATEGIES FOR MOTIVATION… • Interactions and Rapport • Belonging & Inclusion • Predictability • Rules and Consequences • Choice • Curriculum Goals & Instructional Delivery • Power Struggles
Things I Need to Do... Reflect on the ideas we have just discussed. Are there any barriers to getting things in place at your school? Generate at least two tasks you are going to do when you get back to school. Iwill prompt you to do throughout the presentation. Effective professional development depends on the extent to which you take it back and use what you get!
The link between student motivation and achievement is straight forward. If students are motivated to learn the content in a given subject, their achievement in that subject will most likely be good. If students are not motivated to learn the content, their achievement will likely be limited. (Marzano, 2003)
Activity • Think about your favorite teacher. • Think about the qualities that teacher had that made him/her your favorite teacher. • Share with your partner. • 4. Stand and share.
INTERACTIONS AND RAPPORT
What the Research Says About Relationships: An effective relationship may be the keystone that allows the other aspects to work well. Marzano, 2002 “An important part of establishing good communication with students is developing good relationship-building skills. Grant, 1991
The most important part of learning seems to be related to relationships. When students who have been in poverty (and have successfully made it into middle class) are asked how they made the journey, the answer nine times out of 10 has to do with a relationship – a teacher, counselor, or coach who made a suggestion or took an interest in them as individuals. Payne, 1996
For particularly puzzling and/or difficult situations…. Use a 2 X 10, Not a 2 X 4! For 2 minutes, a day for 10 CONSECUTIVE school days, talk to the student about anything other than his/her behavior or academic performance.
Reflect on... One student with whom you could have a better relationship, write his/her name on your “to do” list. Think of the best time of day for YOU to engage in a 2X10 with him/her. Write that on the same line of your “to do” list. Decide on a starting date for the 2X10 with your targeted student. Write on your “to do” list: Begin 2X10 with (targeted student) on (the date you chose). Get out your “Suggestions for 2 x 10”. Circle those topics which may be useful to begin the 2 X 10 with your targeted student.
RELATE StrategyUsed to strengthen relationship-building skills Remain Positive Encourage Participation L isten Attentively Acknowledge Feelings Tell it in your own words Empathize (Lenz, B. K. & Deshler, D.D., 2004)
Strengthen relationships • Display a picture of yourself at the same age as your students • Share stories of yourself from when you were a student • Encourage and support positive affirmation • Offer genuine compliments
“Students say that teachers who are sensitive to their problems in mastering subject matter make a big difference in their feelings about school and their ability to achieve academically.”Phelan, Davidson & Cao, 1992
Emphasize and Affirm that the student is wanted, despite poor behavior.
Be open to and ask for student feedback. How can I? What can I do?
Maintain a Positive: Negative Ratio There is research! FIVE TO ONE
ENGAGE IN A ONE-WEEK POSITIVITY CAMPAIGN • Can be individual or whole group • For a full week say only positive things about or to the student or group • Make rule for student(s) that they may only say positive things about themselves or the group • Focus is completely on positives
“Trust emerges over time as students see their teachers respecting their points of view. From this teacher openness, dialogue emerges. As educators, it is our professional and ethical responsibility to demonstrate encouraging behaviors that model the communication exchanges expected in your community of learners.” (Kissam & Lenz, 1994)
Things I Need to Do... Reflect on the ideas we have just discussed regarding interactions and rapport. Are there any barriers to getting things in place at your school? Generate at least two tasks you are going to do when you get back to school.
To have as a part or member • To take in or comprise as part of a whole Include (in-clood’) v.
“Unless teachers are aware of whether or not students feel included and supported in their classrooms, instructionally, as well as socially, they may persist in making choices and behaving in ways that contribute to some students feeling excluded.” (Ladson-Billings, 1998)
HUMAN DIGNITY HUMOR AND FUN SURVIVAL BELONGING Basic Human Needs GENEROSITY HUMOR AND FUN TO COMMUNICATE EMPOWERMENT FEELINGS OF COMPETENCE
SELF-ACTUALIZATION Creativity, Inner Talent, Fulfillment SELF ESTEEM Achievement, Mastery, Recognition, Respect BELONGING-LOVE Friends, Family, Spouse, Lover SAFETY Security, Stability, Freedom from Fear PHYSIOLOGICAL Food, Water, Shelter, Warmth Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs
SELF-ACTUALIZATION Creativity, Inner Talent, Fulfillment BELONGING-LOVE Friends, Family, Spouse, Lover SELF ESTEEM Achievement, Mastery, Recognition, Respect SAFETY Security, Stability, Freedom From Fear PHYSIOLOGICAL Food, Water, Shelter, Warmth Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs
Safety If teachers and students do not feel safe, they will not have the necessary psychological energy for teaching and learning. (Marzano, 2003)
“Many characteristics contribute to the commitment and sense of belonging to a group; two characteristics crucial are allowing individuals VOICE & CHOICE.” “Voice means more than students expressing their ideas. It also means that you (the teacher) and the rest of the classroom community take notice of who the students are, respecting the things that are important to them, and taking into account their interests whenever possible.” (Oldfather & McLaughlin, 1993)
“Academic and social diversity among your students is not a problem, it is a given.” (Lenz,B. K. & Deshler, D.D. 2004)
Factors Associated With Friendship Development Proximity Opportunity Perceptions of Similarity Competence
Activity • Think of a student who could use a few more friends to enhance his/her quality of life. • For the next 2 minutes, generate a list of at least 5 strategies that will facilitate friendship development with that student and another student. • Choose 2 of those strategies and record them on your “Things I Need to Do” list.
Physical Structure Schedules Procedures
Classroom divided into several distinct areas Clear visual boundaries are used to define areas Students have personal space to store belongings Materials are labeled and accessible Visual cues provide information to the students Use a designated transition area. Physical Structure
Reflect How is my classroom divided? Are different areas obvious to ALL of my students. Are the area boundaries clearly marked. Students ALL have personal space to store belongings. All materials are labeled and accessible. Visual cues are clear and provide students with information.
ICONICITY Individualized Personal Schedule PORTABLILITY DESIGN
Sarah’sSchedule • Daily Oral Language (8:00-8:15) • Reading (8:15-9:30) • Math (9:30-10:30) • Art (10:30-11:15) • Bathroom and Wash Hands (11:15-11:25) • Lunch (11:25-11:55) • Recess (11:55-12:30) • Read Aloud (12:30-12:45) • Science (12:45-1:45) • Writing (1:45-2:00) • Read My Book (2:00-2:30) • Pack for Home (2:30-2:40) • Bus (2:40)
Jason’s Schedule Please help Jason check off each line of his schedule as he completes it with his red marker.
Things I Need to Do... Reflect on the ideas we have just discussed regarding predictability. Are there any barriers to putting things in place at your school? Generate at least two tasks you are going to do when you get back to school.
Procedures – Rules – Principles – Consequences – Reinforcement
HEY, LET’S GET A GRIP! IF WE WANT OUR STUDENTS TO FOLLOW THE PROCEDURES ... • Turn to a partner. • Get a piece of paper to share between you. • One partner be an “A”, another a “B” • A, write one procedure that students must follow in your class. • Pass the paper to B • B, write a different procedure that student must follow in your class. • Past the paper back to A. • Repeat this back and forth process quietly for 1 minute.
Entering the room Lining up Leaving the room Arrival/Beginning the day Ending the day Taking out/putting away/caring for supplies. Participating in group lessons Obtaining help with assignments Handing in finished work/homework What to do with unfinished work When and how to use the school restroom When and how to use the drinking fountain or sink When and how to use the pencil sharpener Being a classroom helper; learning a classroom job Getting into work groups/Centers Using the classroom library Handling seatwork pages Preparing for lunch Getting a tissue Lunch count/attendance Throwing away trash Turning in lost items Locating lost items Pledge Visitors in the classroom Fire drill Signals for attention Helping other students Organizing desk What to do during free time Did you list any of these?
Activity Get with two partners and choose one procedure from the list Develop a specific set of skills needed to follow the procedure Order the skills to be taught Report out
For Rule Following RULES & CONSEQUENCES For Rule Violations
A classroom that is chaotic as a result of poor management not only doesn‘tenhance achievement, it even inhibits it. (Marzano, 2003)
ESSENTIAL GENERAL STATEMENTS BASED UPON VALUES AND ATTITUDES THAT CANNOT BE ENFORCED BY THEMSELVES PRINCIPLES
Guidelines for Classroom Rules Let students be involved State them behaviorally Make them realistic Make them clear and specific Make them enforceable Review and update them Keep them consistent with school rules ENFORCE THEM
INVOLVING STUDENTS IN GENERATING RULES STUDENTS DEVELOP RULES FOR THE TEACHER. STUDENTS DEVELOP RULES FOR EACH OTHER. STUDENTS VOTE ON NEGOTIABLE RULES. TEACHER DEFINES THE PRINCIPLES. STUDENTS DEVELOP THE RULES.
Sample “T” Chart Looks Like Sounds Like
Sample “T” Charts Come to school or class with all of your materials Looks Like Sounds Like • Speaking quietly as I come into the room. • Asking mom to help me remember. • Books and papers and stuff being shoved into a bag • Footsteps on the floor as I carry my heavy bag into the classroom. • Moaning and groaning at all of the stuff we have to bring to school. • Entering building with my stuff • Getting on the bus with my backpack FULL • Putting my books, homework, pencils, colored pencils, notebooks, folders, and lunch in my book bag before going to bed at night • Walking into the classroom with all of the stuff I might need during the class so that I do not have to leave again until class is over