Chinese Civil war: Phase One Sun Yixian (Yatsen), Mao Zedong, & Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) [Yes, I know what your thinking, “What’s up with all those names?” Hussain Al Jaber and Aisha Al-Thani
Formation of the Chinese Republic • The Qing Dynasty had been in power since 1644 • The people of China, under nationalist leader Sun Yixian, demanded: • “Nationalism” The end of foreign domination & influence • “Democracy” Formation of a representative government • “People’s Livelihood” A modernized & industrialized economy to provide security for the people of China
Formation of the Chinese Republic • Sun Yixian (Yatsen) • Leader of the Kuomintang • Kuomintang China’s Nationalist Party • Overthrows Qing Emperor in 1911 and becomes China’s first president, but… • “The Chinese people…do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have four hundred million people gathered together in China…they are just a heap of loose sand.” • Sun could not unite China • Turns over presidency to a top general who overturns democratic reforms • China becomes a military dictatorship overrun by warlords
World War I & The Treaty of Versailles • In 1917, China declares war on Germany • China believed by fighting for the allies that at the end of the war, territories controlled by Germany would be returned to the people of China • Treaty of Versailles gave Japan the former German territory
On May 4, 1919 over 3,000 angry Chinese students gathered in Beijing to protest the Treaty of Versailles Demonstrations spread to other cities throughout China Sun Yixian believes he can regain power, but… May Fourth Movement
The Communist Party in China • Many intellectual Chinese turned against Western Democracy (as you might imagine they would considering how the democracies treated China • Communist Party • Lead by former university asst. librarian Mao Zedong • Influence by the Russian Revolutions of 1917
Student of Marxism However, he believed the communist revolutions would not begin with urban factory workers, but with RURAL PEASANTS “The force of the peasantry is like that of the raging winds and driving rain. It is rapidly increasing in violence. No force can stand in its way. The peasantry will tear apart all nets which bind it…They will bury beneath them all forces of imperialism, militarism, corrupt officialdom, village bosses and evil gentry.” Mao Zedong
After Sun Yixian’s death in 1925, Jiang Jieshi becomes the head of the Kuomintang Jiang Feared communism Supported by bankers and businessmen Over saw a corrupt government Jiang Jieshi & the Nationalists
Chinese Civil War • Jiang Jieshi starts a campaign against communists • Has troops and armed gangs kill members of the Communist Party and union members on the city streets of Shanghai • Nearly wipes out all members of the Communist Party • In 1928 the US and Britain recognize Jiang Jieshi as president of China • The Soviet Union does not due to persecution of Communist Party in China
Chinese Civil War • Mao forms the Red Army by recruiting peasants • Established themselves in the countryside of south-central China • Trained Red Army in guerilla warfare with help from Soviet Union • Jiang sends Nationalists soldiers after them, but can’t completely wipe them out due to guerilla warfare
Chinese Civil War • The Long March • Jiang sends 700,000 men after Communists and surrounds them • 100,000 Communists flee and begin a 6,000 mile-journey (The Long March) • Tens of thousands die due to • Starvation • Battle wounds • Exposure to the cold • Mao and 8,000 survivors take shelter in the caves of northwestern China.
Red Army soldiers marching part of the 6,000 miles Luding Bridge
Cave dwellings in Shaanxi Red Army troops crossing the snowy mountains Mao on the Long March Communist leader addresses the survivors of the Long March
The Invasion of Manchuria • September 19, 193: two artillery pieces installed at the Mukden officers' club opened up on the Chinese garrison nearby. • response to the alleged Chinese attack on the railway. • Zhang Xueliang's small air force was destroyed: 500 Japanese troops attacked aprox. 7000 Chinese soldiers • Japanese had occupied Mukden at the cost of 500 Chinese and only 2 Japanese lives. • 19 Septembe, Mukden was declared secure. • aircraft from the Chosen Army were landing at Mukden airport. • Zhang Xueliang, under implicit instructions from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Government to stick to a nonresistance policy, • It had already urged his men not put up a fight, and to store away any weapons in case the Japanese invaded. • Therefore, the Japanese soldiers continued to occupy and garrison the major cities of Changchun, Antung, and their surrounding areas with minimal difficulty. • November: Ma Zhanshan, the acting governor of Heilongjiang, began resistance with his provincial arm. • January: Generals Ting Chao and Li Du with their local Jilin provincial forces. • Within 5 months of the Mukden Incident, the Imperial Japanese Army had overrun all major towns and cities in the provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang.
Zhang Xuwliang Zhang Xuwliang was Born on June 3, 1901 Zhang Xuwliang, also known as the “Young Marshal“, was the ruler of Manchuria during the Manchurian Incident.It was troops under his rule that were blamed for blowing up the railway.He spent 50 years under house arrest for helping start another incident called the X’ian incident but was referred as a hero for this.Instead of fighting the Japanese he surprised them instead by retreating his troops when they invaded.
Seishiro Itagaki Seishiro was ItagakiBorn on January 21, 1885, Seishiro Itagaki was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army during WII. He was born into a samurai class family and graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy on 1904On 1931 he became the chief of the Intelligent Section of the Kwantung Army.This was one of the reasons why he was chosen to help plan the Manchurian IncidentAnother one would be because he was a military advisor for Manchukuo which was a puppet state for Manchuria.This allowed him to have access to all the parts of Manchuria including the railways.
Kanji Ishiwara Born on January 18, 1889 and died on August 15, 1949, KanjI Ishiwara, just like Seishiro, was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army. He was born in Tsuruoka and lived in a samurai class family.Along with Seishiro, he was primarily responsible for the Manchurian Incident.He studied the military strategies in Germany and came up with a basic military theory and doctrine.While leaving Germany he converted to Nichiren Buddhism.
Controversy • Different opinions still exist as to who blew up the Japanese railroad at Mukden. • Strong evidence points to young officers of the Japanese Kwantung Army having conspired to cause the blast, with or without direct orders from Tokyo. • Post-war investigations also stated that the original bomb planted by the Japanese failed to explode and a replacement had to be planted. • The resulting explosion enabled the Japanese Kwantung Army to accomplish their goal of invading Manchuria and the subsequent establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo.
Chinese Civil War: Japanese Invasion • Time Out!!! • The Civil War between the Nationalists and Red armies is suspended • JAPAN INVADES MANCHURIA IN 1931 • By 1937 Japan invades all of China • Nationalists and Communists unite to repel Japanese invasion • TO BE CONTINUED AFTER WORLD WAR II… Japanese troops entering Shenyang
Bibliography • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mukden_Incident#Background • http://www.slideshare.net/jcrowder/the-manchurian-incident • http://www.answers.com/topic/mukden-incident • http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Mukden_Incident • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Kanji_Ishiwara2.JPG/93px-Kanji_Ishiwara2.JPG • http://image1.findagrave.com/photos/2009/363/46159984_126223126210.jpg