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Author: Jack Slemenda Converse College, SC PowerPoint Presentation
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Author: Jack Slemenda Converse College, SC

Author: Jack Slemenda Converse College, SC

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Author: Jack Slemenda Converse College, SC

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  1. Author: Jack SlemendaConverse College, SC • Date submitted to deafed.net – January 21, 2008 • To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: slemenjc@spart5.k12.sc.us • To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.

  2. Deafness and other Disabilties By Jack Slemenda Converse College

  3. General Info for Deafness and Special Needs • 24.8% of deaf individuals have one additional disability • 8.5 % of deaf individuals have two or more additional disabilities • Additional conditions can either be categorized as physical or cognitive

  4. General info Cont’d • Physical- blindness, brain damage, epilepsy, orthopedic problems, cerebral palsy, and heart disorders

  5. General Info Cont’d • Cognitive- mental retardation, emotional/behavioral problems, and specific learning disabilities

  6. General info Cont’d • Causes/Etiological factors contributing to deafness and cognitive disabilities: infection, trauma, disorders of metabolism, gross brain disease, chromosomal abnormalities, gestational abnormalities, past psychiatric disorders, and environmental influences

  7. Essential Competencies • National study revealed the essential competencies for teaching students with hearing loss and additional disabilities (Luckner) • Categories of essential competencies: • General knowledge and skills regarding teaching students with special needs • Consultation and collaboration • Behavior management • Learning difficulties • Cognitive development • Physical and health disabilities • Vision • Deaf-blindness • Transition • Gifted and talented

  8. Essential Competencies • This study concluded teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students needs to develop the knowledge and skill to work with students who have other disabilities as well • Why? Because it is probable that there will be an increase in percentage of students who are hard of hearing or deaf that will have an additional disability • Two reasons: high risk of additional disabilities that accompanies many etiologies of childhood deafness; there is an increase in number of infants who survive multiple birth defects because of advances in medicine, improved neo-natal care, and research in treatment of infants with these disabilities

  9. Case Study- Deafness and PDD • Case study-child with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)- also known as Autism- and deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) • Characteristics of Autism- verbal and non-verbal communication and social interactions are impacted; onset of symptoms usually before the age of three; engage in repetitious activities or movements (self-stimulation); difficulties with changes in routine; unusual response to sensory stimuli. (Easterbrooks)

  10. Case Study-Deafness and PDD • Little research and literature are available for teachers who teach students with this dual diagnosis • Little known about incidence and prevalence of Autism/PDD among deaf and hard of hearing population

  11. Case Study- Deafness and PDD • Autism is hard to diagnose when there is a hearing loss because communication disorders are common in both Autism and hearing loss • This case study urges these teachers to learn about applied behavior analysis (ABA) as a tool to teach these students • ABA could be considered “best practice” for these teachers, until more literature is available

  12. Case Study- Deaf-Blind Child • Case Study on the interactions of a deaf-blind child and the teacher • Researchers found there was little time devoted to communication and language between this teacher and student • This child was aware of the communicated values of his signals

  13. Case Study- Deaf-Blind Child • Results showed that there needs to be more interaction between the teacher and child • A future research topic for them was to discover ways for teachers to let the child initiate the interaction more • In normal language development parents and teachers leave the initiative in communication to the child, and then respond accordingly

  14. Educational Rationale • Deaf students with multiple disabilities have limited opportunities (social interaction, cognitive skills, communication/language skills) • Limited access to educational opportunities that are available to deaf peers • Importance of language acquisition • Provides basis for placement and curriculum options

  15. Educational Rationale • In the past students have been placed into programs based on their category of disability, which focus on characteristics of groups and not on individual needs. • Emerging view to serve these students is in noncategorical programs

  16. Educational Rationale • If these students are going to experience the best language interactions, they need to be placed in educational setting with deaf peers • Other disabilities besides deafness guide placement currently

  17. Educational Rationale • Three models exist

  18. Educational Rationale • Multidisciplinary- professionals of different areas work with the child individually- results in fragmented services and conflicting recommendations

  19. Educational Rationale • Interdisciplinary- interaction and communication between team members- placement/program decisions are made by group, but services are provided individually “pull-out” sessions

  20. Educational Rationale • Transdisciplinary- sharing and transferring of information and skills across areas- indirect model of service where there are primary facilitators and others act as consultants (collaborative)

  21. Educational Rationale • Four Assumptions for an Effective program • Every child can learn • Peer acceptance and social relations are essential for all students • Families are critical to success • Service providers should implement and take advantage of the transdisciplinary model

  22. Educational Rationale • Person-centered planning approach uses interests and preferences of child allowing the child’s needs to be met • Since these are low-incidence disabilities there are often no curriculums for these students

  23. Educational Rationale • Teachers must be knowledgeable about a wide variety of disabilities and must collaborate with other team members to best adapt and design the curriculum • The use of transdisciplinary model that leads to development of an appropriate IEP will enhance the learning environment for all.

  24. Bibliography Easterbrooks, Susan R., Handley, C., Michele, “Behavior Change in a Student with Dual Diagnosis of Deafness and Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Study,” American Annals of the Deaf 150 (2005/2006): 401-407. Ewing, Karen M., Jones, Thomas W., “An Educational Rationale for Deaf Students with Multiple Disabilities,” American Annals of the Deaf 148 (2003): 267-271. Knoors, Harry, Van Dijk, Jan P.M., Van Dijk, Rick J.M., Vervloedm Mathijs, P.J., “Interaction Bewteen the Teacher and the Congenitally Deafblind Child,” American Annals for the Deaf 151 (2006): 336-344. Luckner, John L., Carter, Kathy, “Essential Competencies for Teaching Students with Hearing Loss and Additional Disabilities,” American Annals of the Deaf 146 (2001): 7-15. Scheetz, Nanci A. Orientation to Deafness. Massassachusettes: A Pearson Education Company, 2001.