Monthly Journal article review: Vimmi Kang PGY 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Monthly Journal article review: Vimmi Kang PGY 2 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Monthly Journal article review: Vimmi Kang PGY 2

play fullscreen
1 / 21
Monthly Journal article review: Vimmi Kang PGY 2
Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Monthly Journal article review: Vimmi Kang PGY 2

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The New England Journal of Medicine: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Monthly Journal article review: Vimmi Kang PGY 2

  2. Importance • Transfusions are a necessary part of managing critical patients. • Different views of when to transfuse in regards to risks versus benefits • Microcirculatory and immunosuppressive complications of red cell transfusions • Concern about supply and safety of blood • Two recent studies suggested that anemia increases risk of death in patients with cardiac disease and in critical ill patients • Prompted the routine use of transfusion in hgb>10g/dL • Optimal transfusion practice for various types of critically ill patients with anemia has not been established

  3. Background • To determine whether a restrictive strategy of red cell transfusion and a liberal strategy produced equivalent results in critically ill patients. • Rates of death from all causes at 30 days and the severity of organ dysfunction was compared between the two groups.

  4. Study was published in 1999 • Enrolled patients in Canada between November 1994 and November 1997 • Exclusion criteria • Age less than 16yrs • Inability to receive blood products • Active blood loss at the time of enrollment • Requirement of >3prbc OR • Decrease in hgb by 3 in the preceding 12 hours • Chronic anemia (hgb <9) • At least one occasion more than 1 month prior to hospital admission • Pregnancy • Brain death or imminent death (within 24hrs) • Question on the part of attending physicians whether to withhold or withdraw ongoing treatment • Admission after a routine cardiac procedure

  5. Method • Enrolled 838 critically ill patients with euvolemia after initial treatment, with hemoglobin conc of less than 9 g/dL within 72 hours of admission to the ICU • 418 of those were randomly assigned to the restrictive group • 420 patients to the liberal group

  6. Restrictive Strategy of transfusion • RBC were transfused if hemoglobin concentration dropped <7.0g/dL • Hemoglobin concentration was maintained at 7 to 9 g/dL

  7. Liberal Strategy of red cell transfusion • Transfusion was given if hemoglobin concentrations fell below 10g/dL • Hemoglobin concentrations were maintained at 10 to 12 g/dL

  8. Base Line Characteristics of the Study Patients

  9. Hgb was measured after each unit of transfusion • APACHE II • Assessed on the day of admission to the ICU • Scores range from 0 to 71 • MODS • Assessed on the day of admission to the ICU • Scores range from 0 to 24

  10. Outcome measures • Primary outcome • Death from all causes in 30 days • Secondary outcome • 60 day rates of death • Mortality rates during ICU stay • Mortality rated during hospitialization • Measures of organ failure and dysfunction

  11. Outcomes

  12. Results • 30 day mortality between the two groups were similar • 18.7% vs 23.3% • Exceptions • Rates were significantly lower in the restrictive group among patients who had a score <20 in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II • 8.7% vs 16.1% • Among patient less than 55yrs of age • 5.7% vs 13% • But not among patients with significant cardiac disease • 20.5% vs 22.9% • Mortality rate during hospitalization was significantly lower in the restrictive strategy group • 22.2% vs 28.1%

  13. Cardiac events, primarily pulmonary edema and Myocardial infarction were more frequent in the liberal-strategy group than in the restrictive strategy group during ICU stay

  14. Conclusions • Restrictive strategy of red cell transfusion is at least as effective as and possibly superior to a liberal transfusion strategy in critically ill patients with the possible exception of patients with acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina

  15. critique • Hypothesis: oxygen delivery should be increased or maintained at high levels to minimize the effects of tissue hypoxis caused by disease processes that interfere with oxygen delivery or the body ability to extract oxygen • Many randomized, controlled clinical trials addressed this hypothesis • Trials did not make inferences on the optimal strategy for red cell transfusion

  16. Results from previous studies were not correlated with this study • “Increasing severity of anemia was associated with a disproportionate increase in mortality rates among patients with ischemic heart disease” • However with this study, it did not show increase in mortality or adverse outcomes in patients with cardiac disease under the restrictive transfusion group when compared to the liberal group • Greater proportion of patients that ‘refused’ to be included this study were of the cardiac disease category • Attending physicians • Can affect generalization of the results, especially myocardial infarction and angina • Not enough data to make any generalization

  17. Did not adhere to the liberal vs restrictive strategy once patient was transferred out of ICU • What affect does that have on the secondary outcomes