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About the Presentations. The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each chapter. All chapter objectives are listed in the beginning of each presentation. You may customize the presentations to fit your class needs.

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    1. About the Presentations • The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each chapter. • All chapter objectives are listed in the beginning of each presentation. • You may customize the presentations to fit your class needs. • Some figures from the chapters are included. A complete set of images from the book can be found on the Instructor Resources disc.

    2. Understanding Operating SystemsSixth Edition Chapter 1 Introducing Operating Systems

    3. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to describe: • Innovations in operating systems development • The basic role of an operating system • The major operating system software subsystem managers and their functions • The types of machine hardware on which operating systems run Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    4. Learning Objectives (cont'd.) The differences among batch, interactive, real-time, hybrid, and embedded operating systems Multiprocessing and its impact on the evolution of operating system software Virtualization and core architecture trends in new operating systems Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    5. Introduction • Operating systems • Manage computer system hardware and software • This text explores: • What they are • How they work • What they do • Why they do it • This chapter describes: • How operating systems work • The evolution of operation systems Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    6. What is an Operating System? • A Computer System consists of: • Software (programs) • Hardware (the physical machine and its electronic components) • The Operating System Software • The chief piece of software • The portion of the computer system that: • Manages all hardware and all software • Controls every file, device, section of main memory and nanosecond of processing time • Controls who can use the system • Controls how system is used Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    7. What is an Operating System? • The Operating System Software • Each time the user sends a command, the OS must make sure that the command is executed; • If it’s not executed: • It must arrange for the user to get a message explaining the error. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    8. Operating System Software • The User Interface • The component unique to each OS. • Users issue commands to the OS. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    9. Operating System Software • The four essentialmanagers of every OS: • Memory Manager • Processor Manager • Device Manager • File Manager • These managers are the basis of all OS. • Each manager works closely with the other managers and performs its unique role regardless of which specific OS is being discussed. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    10. Operating System Software (cont'd.) Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    11. Operating System Software • Network Manager (fifthsubsystem manager) • A network was not always an integral part of operating systems; • Early systems were self-contained with all network capability added on top of existing operating systems. • Now most OS routinely incorporate a Network Manager. • Assumes responsibility for networking tasks • Discussed further in Chapters 9 & 10 Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    12. Operating System Software (cont'd.) Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    13. Operating System Software (cont'd.) • Regardless of the size or configuration of the system, each of the subsystem managers must perform the following tasks: • Monitor its resources continuously • Enforce policies that determine: • Who gets what, when, and how much • Allocate the resource (when appropriate) • Deallocate the resource (when appropriate) Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    14. Operating System Software (cont'd.) • Network Manager • Operating systems with networking capability • Fifth essential manager • Convenient way for users to share resources • Retains user access control • Resources include: • Hardware (CPUs, memory areas, printers, tape drives, modems, and disk drives) • Software (compilers, application programs, and data files) Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    15. Main Memory Management • In charge of main memory • Random Access Memory (RAM) • Responsibilities include: • Protecting the space in main memory occupied by the OS itself. • Checking the validity of each request • If it is a legal request, allocates a portion of memory that isn’t already in use • In a multiuser environment: • setting up a table to keep track of who is using which section of memory Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    16. Main Memory Management • Responsibilities include: • When the time comes to reclaim memory, the Memory Manager deallocates memory. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    17. Processor Management • Determines how to allocate the Central Processing Unit (CPU). • Keeps tracks of the status of each process. • An instance of program execution • Monitors whether the CPU is executing a process or waiting for a READ or WRITE to finish execution. • Once the Processor Manager allocates the processor, it sets up the necessary registers and tables. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    18. Processor Management • When the job is finished or the maximum amount of time has expired, The Processor Manager reclaims the processor. • The Processor Manager has two levels of responsibility: • Handle jobs as they enter the system • Handled by Job Scheduler • Manage each process within those jobs • Handled by Process Scheduler Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    19. Device Management • Monitors every device, channel, and control unit. • Responsibilities include: • Choosing the most efficient way to allocate all of the system’s devices: • Printers, ports, disk drives, etc. • Based on a scheduling policy chosen by the system’s designers. • Accomplished by: • Allocating the device • Starting device operation • Deallocating the device making it available to the next process or job. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    20. File Management • Keeps track every file in the system including: • Data files, program files, compilers, and application programs • Responsibilities include: • Enforcing user/program restrictions on who has access to which files by using predetermined access policies. • Controlling what user/programs are allowed to do with files once they access them. • The File Manager allocates the necessary resources and later deallocates them (By closing them). Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    21. Network Management • The fifth essential manager for those OS with Internet or networking capability. • Provides a convenient way for users to share resources while controlling users’ access to them. • These resources include: • Hardware such as: Software such as: • CPUs Compilers • Memory areas Application program • Printers Data files • Tape drives • Modems • Disk drives Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    22. User interface • The portion of the OS that users interact with directly. • Previously, the user interface consisted of commands typed on a keyboard and displayed on a monitor. • Now most systems allow users to choose a menu option from a list. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    23. Cooperation Issues • Each individual manager must perform its individual tasks and must be able to work harmoniously with every other manager. • Requires incredible precision • No single manager performs tasks in isolation. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    24. Cooperation Issues • For example – someone chooses a menu option to execute a program. The following steps must occur in sequence: • The Device Manager must receive the electrical impulses from the mouse or keyboard, form the command, and send the command to the User interface. • The Processor Manager validates the command and sends an acknowledgement to be displayed on the monitor so the user realizes the command has been sent. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    25. Cooperation Issues • When the Processor Manager receives the command, it determines whether the program must be retrieved from storage or is already in memory, and the notifies the appropriate manager. • If the program is in storage, the File Manager must calculate its exact location on the disk and pass this information to the Device Manager, which retrieves the program and send it to the Memory Manager. • The Memory then finds space for it and records its exact location in memory. Once the program is in memory, the Memory Manager must track its location in memory (even if it’s moved) as well as its progress as it’s executed by the Processor Manager. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    26. Cooperation Issues • When the program has finished executing, it must send a finished message to the Processor Manager so that the processor can be assigned to the next program waiting in line. • Finally, the Processor Manager must forward the finished message to the Device Manager, so that it can notify the user and refresh the screen. • Though oversimplified, this demonstration illustrates some of the incredible precision required for the OS to work smoothly. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    27. A Brief History of Machine Hardware • To appreciate the role of the OS (software), we need to discuss the essential aspects of the computer system’s hardware: • Main memory (RAM) • Where data and instructions must reside to be processed. • Input/Output devices (I/O devices) • Includes every peripheral unit in the system: • Printers, disk drives, CD/DVD drives, flash memory, keyboards, etc. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    28. A Brief History of Machine Hardware • To appreciate the role of the OS (software), we need to discuss the essential aspects of the computer system’s hardware: • Central processing unit(CPU) • The brains with the circuitry (chip) to control the interpretation and execution of instructions. • Controls the operation of the entire computer system. • All storage references, data manipulations, and I/O operations are initiated or performed by the CPU. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    29. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    30. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Computer classification • Until the mid-1970s, computers were classified by capacity and price. • Mainframe • A large machine in size and in internal memory capacity. • The IBM 360, introduced in 1964, is a classic example of an early mainframe. • The IBM 360 Model 30 required 18-square-foot air-conditioned room to house the CPU, the operator’s console, a printer , a card reader, and a keypunch machine; Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    31. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Mainframe: • The CPU was 5 feet high and 6 feet wide; • Had an internal memory of 64K (large for its day); • A price tag of $200,000 in 1964 dollars. • Because of its size and price at the time, its applications were generally limited to large computer centers. • Minicomputer: • Developed to meet the needs of smaller institutions. • One of the early minicomputers was marketed by Digital Equipment Corporation. • The PDP-8 was less than $18,000. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    32. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Minicomputer: • Developed to meet the needs of smaller institutions. • One of the early minicomputers was marketed by Digital Equipment Corporation. • The PDP-8 was less than $18,000. • Smaller in size and memory capacity. • Cheaper than mainframes. • Today, computers that fall between microcomputers and mainframes are often called midrange computers. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    33. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Supercomputer: • Developed for primarily for government applications needing massive and fast number-crunching ability to carry out military operations and weather forecasting. • Business and industry became interested in the technology when the massive computers became faster and less expensive. • A Cray supercomputer is a typical example with 6 to thousands of processors performing up to 2.4 trillion floating-point operations per second (teraflops). Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    34. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Supercomputer: • Often used to perform the intricate calculations required to create animated motion pictures. • Help oil companies in their search for oil by analyzing massive amounts of data. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    35. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Microcomputer • Developed to offer inexpensive computation capability to individual users in the late 1970s. • Early models featured a revolutionary amount of memory – 64K. • Their physical size was smaller than the minicomputers of that time, though larger than the microcomputers of today. • Eventually, microcomputers grew to accommodate software with larger capacity and greater speed. • The distinguishing characteristic of the first microcomputer was its single-user status. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    36. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Workstations • Powerful microcomputers developed for use by commercial, educational, and government enterprises. • Typically networked together and are used to support engineering and technical users who perform: • Massive mathematical computations • Computer-aided design (CAD) • Other applications requiring powerful CPUs, large amounts of main memory, and extremely high-resolution graphic displays. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    37. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Servers • Powerful computers that provide specialized services to other computers or client/server networks. • Examples can include: • Print servers • Internet servers • E-Mail servers • Each performs critical network tasks. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    38. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Advances in computer technology • Since the mid-1970s, rapid advances in computer technology have blurred the distinguishing characteristics of early machines. • Physical size, cost, and memory capacity • The most powerful mainframes today have multiple processors coordinated by the Processor Manager. • Simple mainframes still have a large main memory, but now they’re available in desk-sized cabinets. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    39. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Advances in computer technology • Networking is an integral part of modern computer systems because it can connect workstations, servers, and peripheral devices into integrated computing systems. • Networking capability has become a standard feature in many computing devices: • Personal organizers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cell phones, and handheld Web browsers. • At one time, computers were classified by memory capacity; now they’re distinguished by procesor capacity classification. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    40. A Brief History of Machine Hardware (cont'd.) • Advances in computer technology • Moore’s Law • In 1965, Intel executive Gordon Moore observed that each new processor chip contained roughly twice as much capacity as its predecessor, and each chip was released within 18-24 months of the previous chip. • He predicted that the trend would cause computing power to rise exponentially over relatively brief periods of time (Moore’s Law). Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    41. Types of Operating Systems • Operating systems for large and small computers fall into five categories distinguished by: • Response timer • How data is entered into the systems. • Five Categories: • Batch Systems • Interactive Systems • Real-Time Systems • Hybrid Systems • Embedded Systems Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    42. Types of Operating Systems • Batch Systems: • Date from the earliest computers • Relied on stacks of punched cards or reels of magnetic tape for input; • Jobs were entered by assembling the cards into a deck and running the entire deck of cards through a card reader as a group (a batch). • Efficiency is measured in throughput • The number of jobs completed in a given amount of time. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    43. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Interactive Systems • Gives a faster turnaround than batch systems. • Slower than real-time systems. • Introduced to satisfy the demands of users who needed fast turnaround when debugging programs. • Required the development of time-sharing software: • Allows each user to interact directly with the computer system via commands entered from a typewriter-like terminal. • The OS provides immediate feedback to the user and response time can be measured in fractions of a second. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    44. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Real-time Systems: • Used in time-critical environments where reliability is key and data must be processed within a strict time limit. • System response time must meet the deadline or risk significant consequences. • Systems also need to provide contingencies to fail gracefully • Must preserve as much of the system’s capabilities and data as possible to facilitate recovery. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    45. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Real-time Systems: • Two types of real-time systems, depending on the consequences of missing the deadline: • Hard Real-time Systems: • Risk total system failure if the predicted time deadline is missed. • Soft Real-Time Systems: • Suffer performance degradation, but not total system failure, as a consequence of a missed deadline. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    46. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Real-time Systems: • Although it’s theoretically possible to convert a general-purpose OS into a real-time system by merely establishing a deadline, the unpredictability of these systems can’t provide the guaranteed response time that real-time performance requires. • Most embedded systems and real-time system environments require OSs that are specially designed to meet real-time needs. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    47. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Real-time Systems: • Examples of real-time systems: • Space flights • Airport traffic control • High-speed aircraft • Industrial processes • Sophisticated medical equipment • Distribution of electricity • Telephone switching • Must be 100% responsive, 100% of the time Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    48. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Hybrid systems • A combination of batch and interactive systems. • Appear to be interactive because individual users can access the system and get fast responses. • Accepts and run batch programs in the background when the interactive load is light. • Takes advantage of the free time between high-demand usage of the system and low-demand times. • Many large computer systems are hybrids. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    49. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Embedded systems • Computers placed inside other products to add features and capabilities: • Household appliances • Automobiles • Engine performance, braking, and navigation • Digital music players • Elevators • Pacemakers Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition

    50. Types of Operating Systems (cont'd.) • Embedded systems • Designed to perform a specific set of programs • Not interchangeable among systems • Before a general-purpose OS such as Linux, UNIX, or Windows can be used in an embedded system: • The system designers must select which components from the entire OS are needed in that particular environment. • The final version of the OS will include only the necessary elements. • Any unneeded features or functions will be dropped. Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition