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Growing Divide

Growing Divide

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Growing Divide

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  1. Growing Divide Chapter 6, Section 1

  2. Slavery Divides the Nation • Growing tension over the issue of slavery developed over the years. • With the inclusion of many new territories after the Mexican-American War, the issue had to be addressed. • First attempt= Wilmot Proviso. • Differing viewpoints emerged, separating the North from the South. • Northern viewpoint: Blacks are inferior, but most agreed that slavery should be ended. Those that did not included merchants, bankers, mill owners and unskilled workers. • Southern viewpoint: Slavery is a necessity; more civilized than the northern system of labor.

  3. New Political Parties • In the election of 1848, Democrats and Whigs split over the issue of slavery. • The Free-Soil Party also started as a response to the issue. • Their foundation was keeping slavery out of the territories, but ending slavery as a whole. • Whigs and Democrats were forced to address the issue, possibly limiting their votes. • Both parties chose to adopt the idea of popular sovereignty allowing voters in a territory to decide whether to allow slavery. • Though only receiving 10% of the total vote, the Free-Soil Party was a viable third-party.

  4. Compromise of 1850 • California’s desire to join the Union as a free state threatened to disrupt the balance between the North and the South. • What Henry Clay would put forth became known as the Compromise of 1850 and had 5 parts. • California admitted as a free state; • Those in the territories of NM and Utah would decide via popular sovereignty; • Slave trade would end in D.C.; • Congress would pass a stricter fugitive slave law– private citizens must help with apprehending slaves. • Texas would give up claims to NM for $10 million

  5. Protest and Violence Chapter 6, Section 2

  6. Resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act • The biggest form of resistance was known as the Underground Railroad. • It was a series of homes that would provide refuge to the runaway slaves. • Leaders along the route were known as “conductors” and the most famous was Harriet Tubman. • Her nickname was “Black Moses” • In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, providing many northerners with an image to equate with slavery. • It infuriated Southerners, who felt it portrayed all Southerners as evil.

  7. The Kansas-Nebraska Act • The patchwork legislation throughout the 1800s that attempted to address slavery confused more than making a clear decision. • In 1854, Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to organize he Nebraska Territory into a state. Popular sovereignty would determine whether as a free or slave state. • To appease Southerners, Douglas amended his bill to split the Nebraska Territory into two– Nebraska and Kansas. • It was thought that Nebraska would enter as a free state, Kansas as a slave state.

  8. “Bleeding Kansas” • Both pro and anti-slavery settlers moved to Kansas in an effort to sway popular sovereignty in their favor. • Two governments were established. • One by Border Ruffians who had crossed over from Missouri and one by northern abolitionists. • Both governments petitioned for statehood in 1856. • Violent battles took place between the two sides, earning it the nickname “Bleeding Kansas”. • Border Ruffians attacked anti-slavery Lawrence, and John Brown (an abolitionist), retaliated by executing 5 pro-slavery settlers.

  9. Violence in the Senate • In 1856, Charles Sumner (Massachusetts senator) delivered a speech entitled “The Crime Against Kansas”. • Southerners were angered by Sumner’s speech, and further agitated by his personal attacks against Southern representatives. • Preston Brooks, the nephew of SC representative Andrew Butler attacked Sumner by beating him with a cane. • Both sides (North and South) stood by their representatives, electing them as a symbol for their causes.