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Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

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Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

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  1. Low Blood Pressure(Hypotension) Low blood pressure (hypotension) is pressure so low it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidney, the organs do not function normally and may be permanently damaged

  2. What are the causes of low blood pressure? • Dehydration • Moderate of severe bleeding • Severe inflammation of organs inside the body • Weakened heart muscle • Pericarditis • Pulmonary embolism • A slow heart rate

  3. How does the body maintain normal blood pressure? • The body has mechanisms to alter or maintain blood pressure and blood flow. There are sensors that sense blood pressure in the walls of the arteries and send signals to the heart, the arterioles, the veins, and the kidneys that cause them to make changes that lower or increase blood pressure. There are several ways in which blood pressure can be adjusted - by adjusting the amount of blood pumped by the heart into the arteries (cardiac output), the amount of blood contained in the veins, the arteriolar resistance, and the volume of blood.

  4. How is low blood pressure treated? Low blood pressure in healthy subjects without symptoms or organ damage needs no treatment. However, all patients with symptoms possibly due to low blood pressure should be evaluated by a doctor. (Patients who have had a major drop in blood pressure from their usual levels even without the development of symptoms also should be evaluated.) The doctor needs to identify the cause of the low blood pressure because treatment will depend on the cause. For example, if a medication is causing the low blood pressure, the dose of medication may have to be reduced or the medication stopped, though only after consulting the doctor. Self-adjustment of medication should not be done.

  5. Systolic and Diastolic • Systolic blood pressure for most healthy adults falls between 90 and 120 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Normal diastolic blood pressure falls between 60 and 80 mm Hg. Current guidelines define normal blood pressure as lower than 120/80. Blood pressures over 130/80 are considered high.

  6. Varicose VeinNoninvasive Treatment Varicose veins are swollen,twisted,painful veins that have filled with blood. They usually develop in legs.

  7. Variscose Vein Stripping Variscose Vein Stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. These veins are removed because they are large and painful,and they affect the way the leg looks.

  8. Varicose Veins Causes include: • Defective valves from birth • Thrombophlebitis • Pregnacy

  9. Symptoms • Fullness, heaviness, aching, and sometimes pain in the legs • Visible, enlarged veins • Mild swelling of ankles • Brown discoloration of the skin at the ankles • Skin ulcers near the ankle (this is more often seen in severe cases)

  10. Treatment • Treatment is usually conservative. You will be asked to avoid excess standing, raise your legs when resting or sleeping, and wear elastic support hose. • You may need treatment to improve the appearance of your legs. Surgery may be recommended, such as: • Vein stripping and removal of the varicose vein (ligation) • Sclerotherapy of veins

  11. Prevention • Avoid prolonged standing if personal or family history indicates you are at risk of developing varicose veins