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Central America and the Caribbean

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Central America and the Caribbean

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  1. Central America and the Caribbean


  3. Central America

  4. Caribbean

  5. Guatemala • Slightly smaller than the state of Tennessee • Capital –Guatemala City • Border countries • Belize • El Salvador • Honduras • Mexico

  6. La Bandera Interesting Guatemalan Flag Facts:The stripes of the Guatemalan flag were changed from horizontal to vertical in 1871 to distinguish it from the flags of the other Central American countries. Guatemalan Flag Meaning:In the Guatemalan flag's coat of arms, the crossed rifles indicate Guatemala's willingness to defend itself by war if need be; while the olive branches symbolize the preferred peace. The sky blue stripes represent the fact that Guatemala is located between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and the white stripe stands for the purity of the country's values and peace. Guatemalan Flag History:The current Guatemalan flag was adopted on December 26, 1997, making it one of the world's newest flags. Guatemala received independence from Spain on September 15, 1821. The colors of the Guatemalan flag have their roots in the flag of the former federation of the United Provinces of Central America.

  7. Información • Climate- tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands • Terrain- mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau • Population- 13,824,463 (July 2011 est.) • Religions-Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs

  8. Government- constitutional democratic republic • 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

  9. Independence- 15 September 1821 (from Spain) • Constitution- 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; note - suspended 25 May 1993 by former President Jorge SERRANO; reinstated 5 June 1993 following ouster of president; amended November 1993

  10. El Presidente • PresidentAlvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008) • Elections:president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 September 2007; runoff held 4 November 2007 (next to be held September 2011)

  11. Per Capita Income-$5,200 (2010 est.) • Population below poverty line-56.2% (2004 est.) • Currency-quetzal (GTQ)

  12. Tikal

  13. El Salvador • slightly smaller than Massachusetts • Capital – San Salvador • Border Countries- • Guatemala • Honduras

  14. La Bandera El Salvador Flag Meaning:The blue stripes represent the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea; while the white stripe symbolizes peace. The state coat of arms on El Salvador's flag is based on the coat of arms of the former United Provinces of Central America. The coat of the arms shows a triangle which represents equality and the three branches of El Salvador's government. Inside the triangle are five volcanoes which symbolize the five former members of the federation, flanked by the blue of the ocean and sea. The triangle contains symbols of liberty, ideals of the people and peace, which are represented by a red cap, golden rays and the rainbow. The triangle also shows the date that El Salvador gained independence from Spain. Underneath the triangle lies El Salvador's national motto which translates in English to 'God, Union and Liberty'. The fourteen clusters of leaves represent the 14 departments or states of El Salvador. El Salvador Flag History:The El Salvador flag was adopted on September 27, 1972. El Salvador, which in Spanish means 'the savior', gained its independence from Spain on September 15, 1821 and independence from the Central American federation in 1842.

  15. Información • Climate- tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands • Terrain- mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau • Population- 6,071,774 (July 2011 est.) • Religions-Roman Catholic 83%, other 17%

  16. Government- republic • 14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); • Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan

  17. Independence- 15 September 1821 (from Spain) Constitution- 20 December 1983 Elections- president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 21 March 2009 President Mauricio FUNES Cartagena (since 1 June 2009) El Presidente

  18. Per Capita Income-$5,200 (2010 est.) • Population below poverty line-30.7% (2006 est.) • Currency-the US dollar became El Salvador's currency in 2001

  19. Tazumal-Chalchuapa

  20. CHICHA Instead of germinating the maize to release the starches therein, the maize is ground, moistened in the chicha maker's mouth, and formed into small balls which are then flattened and laid out to dry.

  21. Honduras • slightly larger than Tennessee • Capital- Tegucigalpa • Border Countries- • Guatemala • El Salvador • Nicaragua

  22. La Bandera • Honduras Flag Meaning:The stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The colors on the Honduras flag represent the following: • White - peace and honesty • Blue - the sea and the sky  - vigilance, truth and loyalty, perseverance & justice Honduras Flag History:The flag of Honduras was adopted on January 9, 1866.

  23. Información • Climate- subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains • Terrain- mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains • Population- 8,143,564 (est. 2011) • Religions-Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%

  24. Government- democratic constitutional republic • 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro • The second poorest country in Central America and one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.

  25. Independence- 15 September 1821 (from Spain) • Constitution- 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times • President Porfirio LOBO Sosa (since 27 January 2010) • Elections- president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 27 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2009)

  26. Per Capita Income-$4,200 (2010 est.) • Population below poverty line- 50.7% (2004) • Currency- lempira (HNL)

  27. Ruins of Copan

  28. Nicaragua • slightly smaller than the state of New York • Capital- Managua • Border Countries- • Costa Rica • Honduras

  29. La Bandera • Nicaragua Flag Meaning:The colors of the Nicaraguan flag originate from the flag of the former federation of the United Provinces of Central America. The two blue stripes represented the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea; while white symbolizes peace. A modern interpretation indicates that the color blue symbolizes justice and loyalty; while the color white represents virtue and purity. The coat of arms features an equilateral triangle which represents equality. Inside the triangle are five volcanoes, which represent the five members of the federation. The triangle also contains symbols of liberty and peace - represented by a red Phrygian cap, white rays and rainbow. Nicaragua Flag History:The Nicaraguan flag was adopted on August 27, 1971. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821 and joined the United Provinces of Central America but by 1838, the federation began to dissolve and Nicaragua left to become an independent state. Nicaragua still used the blue-white-blue flag until 1854. The flag was re-instated in 1908 with the inclusion of the state coat of arms.

  30. Información • Climate- tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands • Terrain- extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes • Population- 5,666,301 (July 2011 est.) • Religions-Roman Catholic 72.9%, Evangelical 15.1%

  31. Government- republic • 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonoma); Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*, Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas

  32. Independence- 15 September 1821 (from Spain) • Constitution- 9 January 1987; reforms in 1995, 2000, and 2005 • President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007) • Elections- president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term so long as it is not consecutive); election last held 5 November 2006 (next to be held by November 2011)

  33. Per Capita Income-$2,900 (2010 est.) • Population below poverty line- 48% (2005) • Currency- gold cordoba (NIO)

  34. Costa Rica • slightly smaller than West Virginia • Capital-San Jose • Border Countries- • Nicaragua • Panama

  35. La Bandera Interesting Costa Rican Flag Facts:The law in Costa Rica forbids citizens from flying any Costa Rican flags other than on national holidays, but this law isn't strictly enforced. • Costa Rica Flag Meaning: • Costa Rica Flag History:The Costa Rican flag was adopted on November 27, 1906. Costa Rica's First Lady, Paci'fica Ferna'ndez Oreamuno, designed the flag in 1848. It was designed after the ideals of the French Revolution - freedom, equality, and brotherhood - and the colors of the French National Flag.

  36. Información • Climate- tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands • Terrain- coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes • Population- 4,576,562 (July 2011 est.) • Religions-Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%

  37. Government- democratic republic • 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

  38. Independence- 15 September 1821 (from Spain) • Constitution- 7 November 1949 • President Laura CHINCHILLA Miranda (since 8 May 2010) • Elections- president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term

  39. Per Capita Income-$11,400 (2010 est.) • Population below poverty line- 16%(2006) • Currency- Costa Rican colon (CRC)

  40. Panama • slightly smaller than South Carolina • Capital- Panama City • Border Countries- Costa Rica, Colombia

  41. La Bandera • Panama Flag Meaning:The Panamanian flag's colors represent the two political parties of Panama, the Liberals (red) and the Conservatives (blue). The white symbolizes peace between them and the equal division of the colors states that they both govern the country at different times. The colors of the Panamanian flag also have alternative meanings. The blue represents the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea and red stands for the blood spilt for Panama's independence. The blue star represents the civic virtues of purity and honesty and the red star symbolizes the authority of the law. Together they represent loyalty and resilience. • Panama Flag History:The current Panamanian flag was adopted on December 20, 1903, and provisionally approved in 1904 by the Constituent Assembly. It was not definitely approved until 1925. Panama was a colony of Spain from the 16th century until 1821, when independence was achieved. After independence from Spain, Panama joined Colombia as one of its provinces. Panama gained independence from Colombia on Nov. 3, 1903, with encouragement and military support from the United States. The U.S. then acquired permission to build the Panama Canal and paid $10 million U.S. and an annual fee of $250 000 per year. The Panama Canal, the land it is built on and the area surrounding it is leased to the U.S. and comes under direct United States control.

  42. Información • Climate- tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May) • Terrain- interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills • Population- 3,460,462 (July 2011 est.) • Religions-Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%

  43. Government- constitutional democracy • 9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*(Kuna Yala), and Veraguas

  44. Independence- 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821) • Constitution- 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted 1978, 1983, 1994, and 2004 • President Ricardo MARTINELLI Berrocal (since 1 July 2009) • Elections- president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for two more terms); election last held 2 May 2004 (next to be held on 3 May 2009); note - beginning in 2009, Panama will have only one vice president.

  45. Per Capita Income-$12,700 (2010 est.) • Population below poverty line- 37% (1999 est.) • Currency- balboa (PAB); US dollar (USD)

  46. Caribbean

  47. Cuba • slightly smaller than Pennsylvania • Capital- Havana • Borders- • Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay

  48. La Bandera • Cuba Flag Meaning: The Cuban government's official version of the meaning of the Cuban flag states that - the blue stripes refer to the three old divisions of the island; and the two white stripes represent the strength of the independent ideal. The red triangle symbolizes equality, fraternity and freedom, as well as the blood shed in the island's struggle for independence. Finally, the white star symbolizes the absolute freedom among the Cuban people. • Cuba Flag History:The Cuban flag was adopted on May 20, 1902. In 1848, Narciso López, a Venezuelan general made the first serious attempt to liberate Cuba from Spanish rule. He designed 'La Estrella Solitaria' -'The Lone Star'-banner, which is Cuba's present flag. In 1902 Cuba became an independent republic and López's flag was adopted as the official flag. The three blue stripes are the symbols of Cuba's original three provinces. This original Cuban flag has been used ever since; even after Fidel Castro seized the country after the Communist revolution in 1959.