Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) January 23, 2008 Kathleen Cooper and Alesha Haase Support Unit North
Today’s Objectives • Overview of a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) • Recognize the correlation between FBA and Behavior Support Plan (BSP)
NOTE: This is not BICM training • California Law • Functional Analysis Assessment (FAA) • Hughes Bill, covers “Serious” Behavior • In our district, you will find information on this in Bulletin H-50 Rev. • Behavior Intervention Case Manager training is a 12 hour training, designed to prepare staff in completing Functional Analysis Assessment
FBA is found within Federal Law Covers “behavior impeding learning”, behavior that does not meet the criteria of “serious” Referenced in IDEA ‘97 (P.L. 105-17) Requires an assessment plan Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
Purpose of an FBA • Data is gathered to include: • a precise description of the targeted behavior • environmental factors specific to the targeted behavior • the functional intent of the targeted behavior • The intent of an FBA is to better understand the behavior and those factors influencing it.
Who Conducts an FBA? • A collaborative team that includes the teacher and any support staff s/he may need. • The team will: • Observe the student in various environments • Collect data/review of previous interventions • Review student records (attendance, academic, behavior including office referrals, anecdotal) • Interview staff, parents, student • A BICM is NOT a required team member but can be an excellent resource!
When to Initiate an FBA • School Team Decision • Parent request • Unsuccessful BSP, additional data is needed • Suspension/10 days • Expulsion • IDR/Due Process • ED Assessment • Consideration of BIT services • Consideration or continuation of AA support ** Remember that an assessment plan is required.
GUIDE TO CONDUCTING A FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT FLOWCHART Reason for Referral Generate Assessment Plan Identify & Define Target Behavior Direct Observation Data Collection Interviews Review of Records Determine the Function of the Behavior Identify the Replacement Behavior Teaching Strategies Reinforcement Recommendations Develop and Implement BSP
Nuts and Bolts of the FBA • Student information • Reason for referral • Targeted behavior • Data collection/review of previous interventions • Function of behavior • Positive replacement behavior • Recommendations
Reason for Referral Examples: • Teacher reports that “Sue’s” destructive behavior is interfering with instructional time. • Parent is concerned that “Mary” is biting herself. • Teacher has safety concerns when “Bob” makes threats and uses profanity. • “John” makes disruptive noises during instruction.
Target Behavior • The “targeted behavior” is selected for intervention • Two required elements: - A detailed description of the behavior -Specific observable and measurable behaviors BSP #1
Description of Targeted Behavior Examples: • “Sue” destroys classroom property, which includes behaviors such as tearing up worksheets and throwing materials. • “Mary” bites herself on her arm. • “Bob” verbally threatens to punch the teacher in the face and kick peers. • “John” taps his pencil loudly during instructional time. BSP #1 and #2
Interviews Possible interview subjects: • Current teacher • Previous teachers • Paraprofessionals • Parents • Student • Other school support staff familiar with student BSP #4
Possible Interview Questions • What are the student’s strengths in the area of behavior? • What are the behaviors that are of concern? • How long have the behaviors been exhibited? • Who is present and/or absent during the behavior? • What is reinforcing to the student? How do you know? • What strategies have been effective/ineffective?
Data Collection • Direct Observation: • A–B–C Charts • Frequency Charts • Scatter plots • Duration Recording • Review of previous • interventions
Data Collection Sources The following books provide a variety of data collection sheets and should be available at your school site: • Behavior Intervention Manual (BIM) • BSP Desk Reference: A Teacher and Behavior Support Team’s Guide to Developing and Evaluating Behavior Support Plans • Pre-Referral Intervention Manual (PRIM) • Teacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior Management
Describing Behavior Specific Measurable Observable
Describing Behavior Not “Howard has a tantrum” but “Howard lies on the floor pounding his fists, banging his legs, and yelling.”
Describing Behavior • NOT “Lyleis aggressive” but, “he pinches, kicks, or bites when an uninvited peer joins his game.”
Collecting Data ThroughDirect Observation • The purpose of direct observation is to find out: • How often the behavior occurs? (frequency) • How severe is the behavior? (intensity) • How long the behavior lasts? (duration) • What are the predictors of the behavior? • What maintains the behavior? • Under what condition is the target behavior absent?
Frequency • How often does the behavior occur? • Examples: • Four times per hour • Once a day • Three times per week • Once a month • BSP #4
Intensity • A description of the impact of the behavior: • How loud or how hard is the behavior expressed? • Low, Medium, or High • BSP #4
Duration • How long does the behavior last? • How many minutes does it last? • BSP #4
Direct Observation Sample Observed “Sam” during Language Arts on 1/23/08 from 8:30-9:00 a.m. Teacher directs students to begin writing essay on given prompt. Sam, while seated, says, “No!” Teacher repeats directive while moving towards Sam. Sam yells, “You can’t make me!” followed by an expletive. Teacher moves to position in front of Sam. Sam rises from chair and verbally threatens to hit teacher while raising his right fist. Teacher tells Sam to leave class and go to the office. Sam yells another expletive and leaves the class.
Summary of Observation Sample Based on multiple observations, “Sam” consistently refused to engage in writing assignments. This behavior was evident only during the Language Arts period. In three of the four observations, “Sam’s” refusal escalated into the use of expletives and verbal threats towards the teacher. In all four of the observations, “Sam” was directed to leave the classroom.
Review of Records • The purpose of reviewing the records is to gather information regarding the history of the targeted behavior and prior interventions. • Information can be found in the: CUMS IEPs/BSP SST Summary Sheet Attendance Records Office Referrals Health Records* Other • Look for patterns, changes in this student’s life, successes, challenges and interventions that worked!
A - B - C • Antecedent: What happened before the behavior? • Behavior: What exactly was the behavior? • Consequence: What happened after the behavior? BSP #5
A – B – C Example “Sam” Antecedent: Teacher directed “Sam” to engage in writing activity. Behavior: “Sam” verbally refused to begin assignment. He used expletives while addressing the teacher and made physical threats. Consequence: “Sam” was directed to leave the room.
Function of Behavior • The behavior meets a need for the student. • The function of the behavior is the “pay off”---the reason for the behavior. • If the student’s need is met, the behavior is used again and again.
Function of Behavior • To get … or • To get away from … • Sensory • Escape • Attention • Tangible BSP #8
Replacement Behavior • The team’s aim is to determine: • A socially appropriate behavior that the student will use instead of the problem behavior. • It must meet the same need/function, think of it as “functionally equivalent”. BSP #7
Activity ~ Replacement Behavior Based on multiple observations, “Sam” consistently refused to engage in writing assignments. This behavior was evident only during the Language Arts period. In three of the four observations, “Sam’s” refusal escalated into the use of expletives and verbal threats towards the teacher. In all four of the observations, “Sam” was directed to leave the classroom. • What is the function of Sam’s behavior? 2. What replacement behavior can be used to meet Sam’s needs?
Teaching Strategies • Interventions are logically related to the • assessment and based on data. • Replacement behavior must be • specifically taught and reinforced • General positive behavior must also be • taught and reinforced • BSP #6, #7, and #10
Teaching Strategies • Modeling- “learning by imitation” • Role- Playing- “students need to learn not only what to do, but how to do it” • Performance Feedback- “let them know how they are doing” • Generalization and Maintenance- “reinforce the students when they practice the new skill”
Recommendations for “Sam” Examples: • “Chunk” writing assignments • Give written prompt in advance • Consider use of computer to complete writing tasks • Provide scheduled breaks • Teach coping strategies to use when frustrated or challenged • Offer of alternate work space within the class • Use of individual positive behavioral system BSP #10, #11, and #13
FBA Report • Follows the template • The report: - Presented at IEP meeting -Upload the report to Welligent • Summarized in a PLP Findings becomes the basis for the BSP
Relationship to BSP • Throughout our training today, the BSP was referenced by “section” • Your Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) report will guide the team in developing the draft Behavior Support Plan (BSP) for consideration by the IEP team
FBA Review • What is it? • Who does it? • When should we do it? • Why do we do it? • How do we do it? • Where do we put it when it is completed?
For Further Information Please contact your Program Specialist or LRE Specialist