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Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder By: Lisa Gamble University of Central Florida EEX 5051 PowerPoint Presentation
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Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder By: Lisa Gamble University of Central Florida EEX 5051

Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder By: Lisa Gamble University of Central Florida EEX 5051

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Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder By: Lisa Gamble University of Central Florida EEX 5051

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  1. Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder By: Lisa Gamble University of Central Florida EEX 5051

  2. History of Autism Spectrum Disorder Eugen Blueler, Swiss psychiatrist, first used the term in 1911, however he used the term to describe adult schizophrenics. In 1943, Dr. Leo Kanner of John Hopkins University described Autism for the first time. He observed 11 children from 1938 to 1943, he described these children to have signs of withdraw when it came to human contact. He noted that these behaviors started as early as age 1, at the same time Hans Asperger, German Scientist, identified a similar condition now referred to as Asperger’s Syndrome. Until the 1960’s the medical world thought that children with autism were schizophrenic, it wasn’t until that time that autism became more understood and more precisely identified. Unfortunately due to the unknown when it came to treatment children were being treated with LSD, electric shock therapy, and behavior change techniques. The Autistic Spectrum Disorder has been a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education as since 1990.

  3. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? As defined by our textbook Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by varying degrees of impairment in three areas: 1) communication skills 2) social interactions 3) repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior (swaying/rocking, finger flicks, hand motions, eye movements) People who suffer from any of the disorders associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder can range from very low functioning to high functioning depending on the severity of their disorder

  4. What is Autism? As Defined by IDEA: A developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that affects a child’s performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has serious emotional disturbances. Autism Speaks: Autism everyday

  5. What is Asperger’s Syndrome? On average children with Asperger’s Syndrome have a higher intelligence and communication skills than children who are diagnosed with autism. Although children with Asperger’s Syndrome will display all or most of the other characteristics that describe a child who is autistic. Children diagnosed with this syndrome do not have many functional social interactions. Great Book for familiarizing children with Asperger’s All Cat’s have Asperger’s Syndrome Written by: Kathy Hoopmann

  6. The History of Causes Both Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner stated that the disorder was biological and hereditary in nature. Leo Kanner states the parents of children who are autistic are not “warmhearted.” This lead to the theory that parents were the cause of their child's disorder. In 1967 Bruno Bettelheim came up with a theory that cold and unresponsive mothers are the cause of autism. In the past Autism was often misdiagnosed stating that children were mentally retarded or severely learning disabled, when in fact they may have had a disorder on the autism spectrum. As of today there has not been a concrete answer as to what exactly causes Autism and other related disorders. Doctors have come to the conclusion that it is a neurological disorder and that genetics play a role in many cases. A mirror neuron may be a factor in why children with autism do not understand emotions or respond to them. (also, large head theory) There has been no sufficient evidence that links childhood vaccinations with autism. What do you think?

  7. Some facts about Autism Spectrum Disorder The Center of Disease Control and Prevention estimates the 1 in every 150 children have an autism spectrum disorder. 1 in 94 boys are diagnosed on the autism spectrum. 67 children diagnosed a day, that’s one child almost every 20 minutes! Ratio of boys to girls having an autism spectrum disorder is somewhere from 3:1 to 4:1. Fastest growing disability/disorder; it is more prevalent than AIDS, cancer, and diabetes combined. It is the lowest funded research area although it is the most diagnosed. Receiving less that 5% of all research funded childhood diseases. Usually manifests by the age of three, but may not be recognized or diagnosed until later ages due to complicating issues. Asperger’s usually goes undetected until after pre-school.

  8. Facts Continued… There is an increased risk of having an autism disorder among siblings of individuals with the disorder, approximately 5% of siblings will also exhibit the condition. It is more likely that identical twins will both have autism than it is for fraternal Here is a family of 8, 6 children under the age of 15, all of the children have some form of Autism Spectrum Disorder Sign up to be on the email reminder list so that you can watch the special the next time it airs!!

  9. Identification and Diagnosis I want to share this excerpt of diagnosis from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition and what it suggests as signs for diagnosis: “A. A total of six (or more) items from (1), (2), and (3) with at least two from (1), and one from (2) and (3): (1) qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: (a) marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction (b) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level (c) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g.. by lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest) (d) lack of social or emotional reciprocity

  10. Identification Continued… (2) qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following (a) delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gestures or mime) (b) in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others (c) stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language (d) lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level

  11. Identification Continued… (3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following: (a)encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus (b) apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals (c) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g. hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements) (d) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects B. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years: (1)social interaction (2) language as used in social communication (3) symbolic or imaginative play C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett’s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder”

  12. Rett’s Syndrome Child develops normally prenatal and perinatal. Normal head circumference until 5 months up to 48 months then head growth starts to decelerate, followed by a regression and intellectual disabilities (mental retardation). Child develops stereotypical hand movements. Loss of social engagements rapidly increases. Poorly coordinated trunk. Much more prevalent in females. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Child develops normally for at least two years and anywhere up to 10 years. With normal verbal and nonverbal communication, social relationships, play, and adaptive behavior. This is followed by a significant loss of skills in at least two of the following areas; expressive or receptive language, social skills or adaptive behavior, bowel or bladder control, play or motor skills. More prevalent in males.

  13. Activity: Diagnosing Scenarios. How would this child be diagnosed? You decide!

  14. Teaching Learning in The Autism Spectrum • Many feel the greatest area of need for learners with autism is communication skills, while learners with Asperger’s Syndrome need assistance in social skills • Some widely used educational programming for students with autism include: • Direct instruction: teacher led, small group instruction, on-on-one, lessons presented in small steps (rather than in whole), frequent teacher questioning, practice opportunities, feedback, positive feedback and correction. • Behavior Management: use functional behavioral assessment (involves consequences and setting events that maintain behaviors) and positive behavioral and intervention support (finding ways to support positive behavior rather than punishing negative) to lower the occurrence of biting, hitting, or screaming. • Instruction given in Natural Settings: giving instruction in the kinds of settings that nondisabled children enjoy. Also, using augmentative or alternative communication systems for the students who are nonverbal or have very limited communication function.

  15. Continued… • Instruction for learners with Asperger’s Syndrome will look differently than someone with autism. • These students are usually integrated into the general education classroom and are usually on grade level when it comes to intelligence and grades. • These students need more focus on their social skills and how to apply them in real-life situations. This is done through: • Social Interpreting: An interpreter can turn a confusing event into a meaningful interaction through clarification. A technique taught to these learners is SODA (Stop, Observe, Deliberate, and Act) • Coaching: helping to prepare ahead of time or during a social interaction. Examples may be: • Pointing out someone who is alone and might want to interact ( the teacher would then give the student ideas of how to initiate a conversion) • Give the student cards with conversation starters (this way when a student is in a social situation they have conversation starters on hand)

  16. Early Intervention Focused more on students with severe autism rather than all severities on the spectrum To be effective these interventions should be early, intensive, highly structured with family support No intervention service has been able to claim universal success Increased focus on natural intervention in natural environments, often including the general education classroom. Programs should be started as soon as a diagnosis is made Interventions should be performed 5 days a week within regular school hours appropriate for the child’s chronological age Low student/teacher ratios are important in order to make gains

  17. Adulthood • What are the major concerns about sending adults who are autistic into the world? • employment • social relationships • daily lives • When should transition planning begin? • In elementary school, progressing as the child enters middle school and high school. • Where will most of these individuals end up when they are ready to live on their own? • In community residential facilities or supported living • What is the goal for adults who are autistic and in the work force? • To be in a competitive employment atmosphere or a supported competitive employment atmosphere

  18. At Home Assessment Watch The Dangers of Vaccines Part II at: Answer the following questions to best fit your opinion: How does media play a role in adding to the ever growing fear of vaccinating children? What do you think the medical world could do to better prepare and inform parents about possible side effects of vaccinations? What are your opinions on the vaccinations of children?

  19. References • American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental • disorders (4th ed.) Washington, DC: Author Autism Speaks (2009). Facts About Autism. Retrieved June 10,2009, from Autism Speaks: Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2009). Exceptional Learners: an Introduction to Special Education. Boston: PearsonEducation, Inc. Overton, T. (2009). Assessing Learners with Special Needs An AppliedApproach 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc. Van Pelt, M. J. (September/October 2008). Autism into Adulthood-Makingthe Transition. Social Work Today Vol. 8 no. 5 , 12. Retrieved from: June 12, 2009 WebMD. (2009, April 10). Autism Spectrum Disorder Health Center. Retrieved June 10, 2009, from WebMD Better information, better health: WebMD. (2009). History of Autism. Retrieved June 10, 2009, from WebMD Better Information Better Health: