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InRev1 PowerPoint Presentation

InRev1

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InRev1

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  1. InRev1 The Apgar Scale Score 0 1 2 Characteristic Heart rate Efforts to breathe Muscle tone Skin color Reflex irritability Absent Absent Flaccid,limp Body pale or blue No response Less than 100 beats per minute Slow, irregular Weak, inactive Body pink, extremities blue Frown, grimace More that 100 beats per minute Good; baby is crying Strong, active motion Body and extremities pink Vigorous crying, coughing, sneezing Source: Apgar (1953)

  2. Height and Weight Growth During the First Two Years Height Weight 105 41.3 15 33.1 100 39.4 14 30.9 95 37.4 13 28.7 Boys 90 35.4 12 26.5 Boys 85 33.5 11 24.3 80 31.5 10 22.0 Kilograms Inches Centimeters Pounds 75 29.5 9 19.8 75 27.6 8 17.6 65 25.6 7 15.4 Girls Girls 60 23.6 6 13.2 55 21.7 5 11.0 19.7 50 8.8 4 17.7 45 6.6 3 15.7 40 4.4 2 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 Age in Months Age in Months

  3. Body Proportions, Fetal Period Through Adulthood 2 months (fetal) 5 months (fetal) Newborn 2 years 6 years 12 years 25 years

  4. Percentages of Adult Weight • BrainBody • At Birth 25% 5% • 2 Years 75% 20% • 4 Years 90% 20%

  5. The Process of Myelinization

  6. State of Arousal in Infants State Behavior of Infants Non-REM sleep REM sleep Drowsiness Alert inactivity Alert activity Distress Complete rest Occasional twitches; irregular and intermittent eye movements Occasional movements, but fewer than in REM sleep; eyes open and close;glazed look Eyes open and scanning; body relatively still Eyes open, but not attending or scanning; frequent,diffuse bodily movements; vocalizations Whimpering or crying; vigorous movements; facial grimaces; skin flushed Source: Ferber and Kryger (1995)

  7. Developmental Changes in Sleep Requirements 24 16 14 WAKING 12 REM SLEEP 10 AVERAGE DAILY SLEEP (HOURS) 8 6 NREM SLEEP 4 2 1-15 days 3-15 mos. 6-23 mos. 2-3 yrs. 3-5 yrs. 5-13 yrs. 14-18 yrs. 19-30 yrs. 33-45 yrs. 90 yrs. INFANCY ADOLESCENCE CHILDHOOD ADULTHOOD AND OLD AGE

  8. MAJOR REFLEX REACTIONS IN NEWBORN INFANTS SURVIVAL REFLEXES: Serve obvious physical needs breathing sucking eyeblink rooting swallowing pupillary PRIMITIVE REFLEXES: Serve no obvious physical needs; may be vestiges of important reflex behaviors at earlier stages of human evolution moro tonic neck stepping grasping Babinski swimming

  9. Milestones of Motor Development

  10. Summary of Physical Development in the First Two Years • Cephalocaudal and proximodistal directions of growth • At birth the brain is 25% of its adult weight, the body only 5%. • By two years the brain is 75%, and the body 20% of adult weights. • Neonate is born with variety of reflexive behaviors. • Infant sleeps two times as much as adult. • Injuries claim lives of more children than all major illnesses combined.