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The 13 Rebellious Colonies: Intense Population Growth PowerPoint Presentation
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The 13 Rebellious Colonies: Intense Population Growth

The 13 Rebellious Colonies: Intense Population Growth

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The 13 Rebellious Colonies: Intense Population Growth

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  1. The 13 Rebellious Colonies:Intense Population Growth • As a result of the remarkable “natural fertility” of all Americans, white and black – colonists population was doubling in size every 25 years. • 1700 fewer than 300,000 and 20,000 were black • 20 English subjects for every colonist • By 1775, 2.5 million inhabited those same 13 colonies and about 500,000 were black. • Only 3 English subjects per colonist • Youthful people – average age of 16. Came over to the New World young, started families. • Most of the population was East of the “Alleghenies” – part of the Appalachian Mountain Range. • Most populous in order – Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Maryland. • Only four communities could be called cities Philadelphia (34,000 residents), New York, Boston, and Charlston. • 90% of people live in rural areas.

  2. America as the “Melting Pot” • Primarily English in Origin. • Germans 6% of the population, • Fleeing religious persecution, economic oppression, war • Primarily settled in Pennsylvania Backcountry – making up about 1/3 of the colonies population. • Protestant – Lutherans (contributes to religious diversity of the colony) • Issue: Having not been brought up English they were without a deep-rooted loyalty to the British Crown. • Clung to their German language and traditions. • Name some we see today? • Scots-Irish • In 1775, make up 7% of the population of the colonies. • Spoke English • “Turbulent Lowlanders” – lived on the border between England and Scotland but moved to northern Ireland where they were hated by the Irish Catholics. They did not do well there, the English restricted them. Left Ireland to come to America. • Were religious but did not want established churches • Their resentment/poor treatment would make them passionate advocates of independence. • March of the Paxton Boys – protested the lenient policy of the Quakers toward the Indians.

  3. The “Melting Pot” Continued • Other groups represented in the colonies, make up 5% of the population • French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders. • The largest non-English group was African, making up nearly 20% of the population. • Perhaps the most mixed population in the world – although primarily Anglo-Saxon • Anglo-Saxon refers to the first two German tribes to settle England – the Angles and the Saxons. Today we can think of Anglo-Saxons as English. • Distribution – • South – holds 90% of the slaves • North – least diverse ethnically • Middle Colonies – most variety of peoples • Immigrant groups intermarried laying the foundation for the multicultural American identity, unlike anything known in Europe.

  4. Colonial Society as Compared to European Society • America seemed like the land of equality and opportunity – with the exception of slavery • Without titles of nobility • An ambitious previous indentured servant could rise from a lower rung to a higher one. “Rags to Riches” • Most white Americans were small farmers • Overall Americans enjoy a higher standard of living than the masses of any country in history up until that time. • “Barriers to Mobility” emerge as a result of Wars • People begin making money off of war as “military suppliers” four separate wars occur between 1688 and 1774 • King William’s War • Queen Anne’s War • King George’s War • French and Indian War • Began to be seated in churches and schools according to status. • War creates a number of widows and orphans – a class dependant on charity.

  5. Colonial Society as Compared to European Society Continued Had many slaves. Wealth not evenly distributed among whites. Wealth concentrated in the hands of the largest slave-owners. Widens gap. Plantation Aristocracy Small Yeoman Farmers Indentured servants, “Jayle Birds” convicts shipped from England – group not overly concerned about pleasing the English Poor Landless Whites No equality and were not going to move up. Slaves

  6. Working in Colonial America • Christian Ministry • Most respected but less influential than in the earlier days • Physicians • Most were poorly trained and therefore not respected. • First medical school established in 1765 • Bleeding was a frequent remedy for all diseases • George Washington asked to be bled during a throat infection and 1.7 liters of blood was removed • Epidemics – smallpox, diphtheria, etc. • Law Profession • At first not favorably regarded – troublemakers • Many presented their own court cases. • Became viewed as useful.

  7. Working in Colonial America • Agriculture • Involved about 90% of people • Tobacco – staple crop in Maryland and Virginia • Wheat – grown throughout the Chesapeake – grown on lands depleted by tobacco. • Grain – Middle Colonies • Fishing • Whaling – needed whale oil to burn in lamps • Rewarding • New England exported dried cod • Manufacturing • Many small enterprises • Generally you could make more money working the land • Rum distilled in Rhode Island and Massachusetts • Beaver Hats and Spinning/Weaving • Lumber – most important – timber consumed by shipbuilders • Britain relied on trees in America for its ships – trees were marked with the kings broad arrow if it was to be used as a masts if colonists cut them down they were fined – caused bitterness even though there were plenty of trees

  8. The Colonial Economy by Region • Northern Colonies – grew grain, raised cattle, harvested timber and fish, and built ships. • Chesapeake Colonies and North Carolina were heavily dependant on Tobacco • Southernmost Colonies grew primarily rice and indigo (cotton had not yet emerged as a major crop)

  9. Trade • Triangular trade with Africa and • Profitable though small in relation to total colonial commerce • American population is increasing, British population is not, therefore Britain wasn’t producing enough goods to match American growth – Americans begin to look elsewhere for products. • Americans were not trading with loads of other countries they were trading with Britain who would trade with European markets – taking money for themselves. Mercantilism?

  10. “Triangular Trade” New EnglandColonies A “Skipper” leaves colonies with rum Takes Rum Brings molasses to New England to make more Rum Africa Gold Coast of Africa trades rum for slaves West Indies Takes slaves Reaches the West Indies with Slaves and trades for molasses (thick syrup made from sugar cane)

  11. Transportation • Population was spread out = transportation issues • 1700s roads finally connect major cities. • One travelling from Philadelphia to New York would make a will before traveling. • Primarily traveled by water, along the coast or via rivers. • Taverns were found along travel routes • Gossip and political talk • Intercolonial postal system – mid 1700s • News of the Declaration of Independence took 29 days to reach Charleston from Philadelphia.

  12. Church Denominations • Tax supported churches – Anglican and Congregational, however, a significant number of people did not worship in any church. • Only a minority of the population in colonies with established religions, actually belonged to that church. • The Church of England (Anglican Chruch) was the official faith in Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and part of New York. • More worldly than the original Puritans • Poor clergy  creation of The College of William and Mary to train clergy. • Without a resident bishop in the New World – wanted one but it was opposed as many felt it represented the Crown’s control • The Congregational Church (which had grown out of the Puritan Church), was formally the established religion in all New England colonies except Rhode Island. • Text suggests Presbyterianism, Congregationalism, and Rebellion were all connected • Anglican clergyman supported the king – taxes benefited them

  13. The “First” Great Awakening • Religion was less taking a backseat – it had been 100 years since the colonies were first planted. • Puritans were trying to balance elaborate theological doctrines with their desire liberalize church membership requirements • Liberal ideas begin to challenge old-time religion • Threats to the idea of predestination – free-will preached by Jacobus Arminius • This concern and others pressure the church to lessen church membership requirements – stating spiritual conversion was not necessary for church attendance. • Great Awakening sparked by Pastor Jonathon Edwards in Massachusetts • Intellectual, emphasized the need to depend on God’s grace rather than good works. • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • George Whitefield a follower of Edward’s began a different type of Evangelical preaching • Said to have had a magnificent voice • Toured the colonies focusing on human helplessness and divine power. • During these emotional meetings many would profess conversion and react emotionally. • Many were skeptical to this new type of preaching,, these people were called “old lights”. • “New Lights” said the Awakening revitalized American religion. Congregationalists and Presbyterians split over this issue. Baptist churches become more prevalent. • Effects • “New Light” Universities are created to train ministers – Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth • Emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality, undermining those whose authority came from their education. • First spontaneous movement of the American people, broke down sectional lines – an experience shared by all Americans.

  14. Education • England’s View on Education (during this time period): • Reserved for the wealthy • For those likely to take on leadership • Primarily only for males • Puritan New England was particularly interested in education • Religious – Congregational Church stressed the need for Bible reading • Education for boys flourished from the outset • Impressive number of graduates from English Universities came from New England • Primary and secondary schools • The Middle Colonies had elementary schools • The Southern Colonies because the population was spread out over large areas made it difficult to have schools • Emphasis placed on religion (doctrine) in schools and on classical Latin and Greek languages. • Discipline was severe – indentured-servant teachers could be whipped for their failure to teach so they didn’t hold back on discipline. • College education was geared toward preparing men for ministry • Many wealthy families in the South were frustrated with the religious emphasis sent their children abroad to English institutions. • Nine local colleges were established.

  15. Art and Culture • Americans still followed European tastes • Those interested in the arts had to travel to England for training • Architecture was “imported” from the Old World and modified to meet the needs of the colonists. • Log cabin borrowed from Sweden. • Literature is left “undistinguished” – • Phyllis Wheatley – significant contribution to poetry and African American literature - “her verse compares favorably with the best of the poetry-poor colonial period but the remarkable fact is that she could overcome her severely disadvantaged background and write any poetry at all” • Benjamin Franklin – Poor Richard’s Almanack(calendar, astrology, weather, sayings, poetry, mathematical equations) • Emphasized virtues such as thrift, industry, morality, and common sense • “There are no gains, without pains” • Look them up! • Science – behind Old World • Franklin – lightening rod, bifocal spectacles, Franklin Stove • Textbook picture of group around static electricity

  16. Pioneer Presses • Too poor to buy many books and too busy to read them. • Hand-operated printing presses cranked out pamphlets, leaflets, and journals – weeklies that consisted of a single large sheet folded once. • Often lagged weeks behind the events, especially in the case of overseas news, which colonists were very interested in. • Zenger Trail – John Zenger, a newspaper printer, accused the royal governor of corruption, he was found not guilty. Significant achievement for freedom of the press and democracy. • True statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel. • Newspapers could print “responsible” criticisms of officials – not full freedom of the press.

  17. Politics • Made note-worthy contributions • By 1775 eight of the thirteen colonial governments had royal governors (Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey), three were under proprietors (Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware) who chose the governors themselves, and two elected their own governors under self-governing charters (Connecticut and Rhode Island) • Nearly all colonies utilized a two-house legislative body – upper house appointed by the crown, and the lower house elected by qualified voters (those who owned property). Back-country – underrepresented. • Legislatures in which the people were directly represented voted on taxes for colonial government. • Most governors appointed by the crown were able men, some were incompetent/corrupt. • Royal governors were the symbol of the authority of the Crown in the colonies. • Some colonial assemblies would withhold the governors wages until he gave in to their wishes. • Not a democracy – but more democratic than England and the rest of Europe.

  18. “Colonial Folkways” • Plenty of food – although it could be considered boring. Americans ate more meat than most in the New World. • Homes were poorly heated by fireplaces • No running water or plumbing • Candles and whale-oil lamps were used for light. • Hogs ranged the streets consume waste • Funerals and Weddings were opportunities for social gatherings. • Winter sports common in the north. • In the South, card playing, horse racing, fox hunting, and dancing were popular. • Lotteries were used to make money for churches and colleges. • Holidays were celebrated everywhere – Christmas was frowned upon in New England. • All demonstrated some degree of ethnic and religious toleration, social mobility, some measure of self-government, communication and transportation were improving.