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How was careful observation of the sky used in early cultures?

How was careful observation of the sky used in early cultures?

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How was careful observation of the sky used in early cultures?

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  1. How was careful observation of the sky used in early cultures? • To determine the seasons • To decide when to plant crops • To navigate on long voyages • All of the above • 1 and 2 only

  2. How was careful observation of the sky used in early cultures? • To determine the seasons • To decide when to plant crops • To navigate on long voyages • All of the above • 1 and 2 only

  3. When was the Earth known to be circular and its circumference measured? • From the earliest times • By the Greeks • At the start of the Renaissance • By Galileo, in the early 17th century • Around 1800

  4. When was the Earth known to be circular and its circumference measured? • From the earliest times • By the Greeks • At the start of the Renaissance • By Galileo, in the early 17th century • Around 1800

  5. In what ways do most people employ scientific thinking in everyday life? • Observe the world and notice patterns • Use trial and error–experiments – to test ideas • Predict things before they happen • All of the above • 1 and 2

  6. In what ways do most people employ scientific thinking in everyday life? • Observe the world and noticing patterns • Use trial and error–experiments–to test ideas • Predict things before they happen • All of the above • 1 and 2

  7. What characterizes a scientific explanation? • It is based on the ideas of the smartest people • The more ancient the wisdom, the better the explanation • It is based on observations • It is tested through prediction and experiments • 3 and4

  8. What characterizes a scientific explanation? • It is based on the ideas of the smartest people • The more ancient the wisdom, the better the explanation • It is based on observations • It is tested through prediction and experiments • 3 and4

  9. Why is a scientific theory supposed to predict, and not just explain after the fact? • The scientific method is supposed to be followed in order • People can usually think up explanations after something happens, but they may not be right • Predicting things before they happen requires more understanding–you are more likely to have the correct explanation • 2 and 3

  10. Why is a scientific theory supposed to predict, and not just explain after the fact? • The scientific method is supposed to be followed in order • People can usually think up explanations after something happens, but they may not be right • Predicting things before they happen requires more understanding–you are more likely to have the correct explanation • 2 and 3

  11. What is the difference between the word theory as used in everyday speech, and the word theory as used in science? • Theory, in common speech, is something uncertain (“It’s just a theory”) • A scientific theory is different. It has been thoroughly tested • A scientific theory must be discarded if it fails to explain what is observed in any experiment • All of the above

  12. What is the difference between the word theory as used in everyday speech, and the word theory as used in science? • Theory, in common speech, is something uncertain (“It’s just a theory”) • A scientific theory is different. It has been thoroughly tested • A scientific theory must be discarded if it fails to explain what is observed in any experiment • All of the above

  13. What method or processesdo scientists use when they are doing science? • Observing the world; looking for patterns that can be clues to underlying laws • Sorting, classifying, or measuring • Suggesting a hypothesis,which explains what has been seen already and predicts something not yet seen • Doing an experiment or collecting data to test the hypothesis • All of the above

  14. What method or processesdo scientists use when they are doing science? • Observing the world; looking for patterns that can be clues to underlying laws • Sorting, classifying, or measuring • Suggesting a hypothesis,which explains what has been seen already and predicts something not yet seen • Doing an experiment or collecting data to test the hypothesis • All of the above

  15. Do you think scientists follow the steps of the scientific method given in the previous slide in order (step 1, then 2,then 3…) ? • Yes–that’s the scientific method • No • Often, but not always

  16. Do you think scientists follow the steps of the scientific method given in the previous slide in order (step 1, then 2,then 3…) ? • Yes–that’s the scientific method • No • Often, but not always

  17. If scientists skip a step in the scientific method–for instance, intuitively guessing the answer even before doing the experiment–what happens? • They flunk out of science • Real scientists never skip steps • They go back later and do the steps they didn’t do • Other scientists repeat the experiment • 3 and 4 often happen

  18. If scientists skip a step in the scientific method–for instance, intuitively guessing the answer even before doing the experiment–what happens? • They flunk out of science • Real scientists never skip steps • They go back later and do the steps they didn’t do • Other scientists repeat the experiment • 3 and 4 often happen

  19. Is science more about answers, or about the process of how to find and test answers? • Answers • The process of finding and testing answers

  20. Is science more about answers, or about the process of how to find and test answers? • Answers • The process of finding and testing answers

  21. Do you think that the scientific method involves much creativity? • Yes • No

  22. Do you think that the scientific method involves much creativity? • Yes • No

  23. Do you think that science is a system of beliefs? • Yes • No

  24. Do you think that science is a system of beliefs? • Yes • No [Science is based on evidence, experiment, predicting, and testing. A belief system is based on belief or faith.]

  25. Are there ways of knowing other than scientific ones? • Yes • No • Not really

  26. Are there ways of knowing other than scientific ones? • Yes • No • Not really

  27. What is special about scientific knowledge, compared to other ways of knowing? • It is based on data • It has gone through a process of prediction and testing • Scientists not involved with the original discovery test it after a new scientific discovery has been published • Explanations are based on natural causes • All of the above

  28. What is special about scientific knowledge, compared to other ways of knowing? • It is based on data • It has gone through a process of prediction and testing • Scientists not involved with the original discovery test it after a new scientific discovery has been published • Explanations are based on natural causes • All of the above

  29. What is pseudoscience? • Something that looks like science but isn’t • Something that often uses scientific words but not the method of science • Something that may want the respectability of science but does not actually use the methods of science • Something that usually doesn’t really work, or doesn’t work the way claimed • All of the above

  30. What is pseudoscience? • Something that looks like science but isn’t • Something that often uses scientific words but not the method of science • Something that may want the respectability of science but does not actually use the methods of science • Something that usually doesn’t really work, or doesn’t work the way claimed • All of the above

  31. What are some of the common characteristics of pseudoscience? • It explains things people care about that may not have other explanations • It is based on postdiction not prediction. It explains after the fact • If it fails, there is always an excuse–the theory is not discarded (e.g., astrology is only a tendency; it isn’t supposed to always work….) • Uses scientific-sounding jargon incorrectly (e.g., Energy flows….) • All of the above

  32. What are some of the common characteristics of pseudoscience? • It explains things people care about that may not have other explanations • It is based on postdiction not prediction. It explains after the fact • If it fails, there is always an excuse–the theory is not discarded (e.g., astrology is only a tendency; it isn’t supposed to always work….) • Uses scientific-sounding jargon incorrectly (e.g., Energy flows….) • All of the above (common No. 6: It wants your money!)

  33. The great scientist and teacher, Richard Feynman, said science is, “A way of trying not to fool yourself.” What do you think he meant? • Scientists are very smart. Become a scientist and you will know more • It is natural to believe our own ideas, but not to want them critically tested. Science forces us to test our ideas • Subconsciously we tend to see evidence that agrees with our ideas and ignore that which doesn’t. In science, different groups of scientists repeat experiments, removing some of this bias • All of the above • 2 and 3

  34. The great scientist and teacher, Richard Feynman, said science is, “A way of trying not to fool yourself.” What do you think he meant? • Scientists are very smart. Become a scientist and you will know more • It is natural to believe our own ideas, but not to want them critically tested. Science forces us to test our ideas • Subconsciously we tend to see evidence that agrees with our ideas and ignore that which doesn’t. In science, different groups of scientists repeat experiments, removing some of this bias • All of the above • 2 and 3

  35. Whose suggestion that the Sun is the center of the solar system was first taken seriously by many people? • Copernicus • Tycho • Kepler • Galileo

  36. Whose suggestion that the Sun is the center of the solar system was first taken seriously by many people? • Copernicus • Tycho • Kepler • Galileo

  37. What did Tycho do that advanced astronomy significantly? • Realized that orbits didn’t have to be circles, they could be ellipses • Made more accurate observations than anyone before (improved the data) • Thought of the idea of circles moving on circles (epicycles) to explain planet’s motion

  38. What did Tycho do that advanced astronomy significantly? • Realized that orbits didn’t have to be circles, they could be ellipses • Made more accurate observations than anyone before (improved the data) • Thought of the idea of circles moving on circles (epicycles) to explain planet’s motion

  39. Johannes Kepler, • Came up with a theory–elliptical orbits–that explained Tycho’s very accurate data • Found that planets don’t orbit at constant velocity–they speed up when nearer the Sun • Discovered the relationship between orbital period and a planets distance from the Sun • Thought he heard the “music of the spheres” • All of the above

  40. Johannes Kepler, • Came up with a theory–elliptical orbits–that explained Tycho’s very accurate data • Found that planets don’t orbit at constant velocity–they speed up when nearer the Sun • Discovered the relationship between orbital period and a planets distance from the Sun • Thought he heard the “music of the spheres” • All of the above

  41. Why do many scientists consider Galileo the originator of modern science? • He invented the telescope • He proved that Copernicus was right • He emphasized how important it is to test ideas through experiment

  42. Why do many scientists consider Galileo the originator of modern science? • He invented the telescope • He proved that Copernicus was right • He emphasized how important it is to test ideas through experiment

  43. Could you distinguish between earth and sun-centered solar system models by observing Venus with a telescope? • Yes, it would show phases • No, either model shows phases • Yes, in one model apparent size is correlated with phases • No, both make similar predictions • I’m not sure

  44. Could you distinguish between earth and sun-centered solar system models by observing Venus with a telescope? • Yes, it would show phases • No, either model shows phases • Yes, in one model apparent size is correlated with phases • No, both make similar predictions • I’m not sure

  45. Suppose a comet had a very eccentric orbit that brought it quite close to the Sun at closest approach (perihelion) and beyond Mars when furthest from the Sun (aphelion), but with an average distance of 1 AU. How long would it take to complete an orbit and where would it spend most of its time? • One year, mostly beyond Earth’s orbit. • One year, mostly within Earth’s orbit. • Over one year, mostly beyond Earth’s orbit. • Less than one year, mostly within Earth’s orbit • It depends on the exact value of the eccentricity.

  46. Suppose a comet had a very eccentric orbit that brought it quite close to the Sun at closest approach (perihelion) and beyond Mars when furthest from the Sun (aphelion), but with an average distance of 1 AU. How long would it take to complete an orbit and where would it spend most of its time? • One year, mostly beyond Earth’s orbit. • One year, mostly within Earth’s orbit. • Over one year, mostly beyond Earth’s orbit. • Less than one year, mostly within Earth’s orbit • It depends on the exact value of the eccentricity.

  47. In science, saying that something is a theory means that it is really just a guess. • Yes, but a guess by a highly educated person. • Yes, but it has strong support by other scientists. • No, a hypothesis only becomes a scientific theory after it has been well tested. • No, it must have detailed mathematical equations to back it up. • No, a theory is published in books, a guess isn’t.

  48. In science, saying that something is a theory means that it is really just a guess. • Yes, but a guess by a highly educated person. • Yes, but it has strong support by other scientists. • No, a hypothesis only becomes a scientific theory after it has been well tested. • No, it must have detailed mathematical equations to back it up. • No, a theory is published in books, a guess isn’t.

  49. Upon its publication in 1543, the Copernican model was immediately accepted by most scientists because its predictions of planetary positions were essentially correct. • Yes, and it was therefore subsequently referred to as the “Copernican revolution.” • Yes, and it was subsequently used by navigators to explore the New World. • Yes, because there was a growing recognition that the Ptolemaic model was inaccurate. • No, it was not substantially more accurate than the Ptolemaic model. • No, it was only after spacecraft explored the solar system that scientists were convinced of its validity.

  50. Upon its publication in 1543, the Copernican model was immediately accepted by most scientists because its predictions of planetary positions were essentially correct. • Yes, and it was therefore subsequently referred to as the “Copernican revolution.” • Yes, and it was subsequently used by navigators to explore the New World. • Yes, because there was a growing recognition that the Ptolemaic model was inaccurate. • No, it was not substantially more accurate than the Ptolemaic model. • No, it was only after spacecraft explored the solar system that scientists were convinced of its validity.