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Chapter 46

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Chapter 46

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  1. Chapter 46 Osmoregulation and Disposal of Metabolic Wastes

  2. Osmoregulation • The active regulation of osmotic pressure of body fluids so that homeostasis is maintained • Excretory systems • Help maintain homeostasis by regulating the concentration of body fluids

  3. Principal waste products of animal metabolism • Water • Carbon dioxide • Nitrogenous wastes • Ammonia (excreted mainly by aquatic animals) • Urea • Uric acid

  4. Osmoconformers • Includes most marine invertebrates • Salt concentration of their body fluids varies with changes in the seawater

  5. Osmoregulators • Marine invertebrates that inhabit coastal habitats • Maintain an optimal salt concentration despite changes in the salinity of their surroundings

  6. Nephridial organs • Include protonephridia and metanephridia • Function in osmoregulation and waste disposal

  7. Protonephridia • Found in flatworms and nemerteans • Tubules with no internal openings • Interstitial fluid enters their blind ends, which consist of flame cells • Beating of the cilia propels fluid through the cilia

  8. Protonephridia of a flatworm

  9. Metanephridia • Found in annelids and mollusks • Tubules open at both ends • As fluid from the coelom moves through the tubule, materials are reabsorbed by capillaries • Urine exits the body through nephridiopores

  10. Metanephridia of an earthworm

  11. Malpighian tubules • Extensions of the insect gut wall • Have blind ends that lie in the hemocoel • Cells of the tubule actively transport uric acid, etc., into the tubule • Water follows by diffusion

  12. Malpighian tubules, cont. • Contents of the tubule pass into the gut and water and some other solutes are reabsorbed in the rectum • Malpighian tubules effectively conserve water

  13. Malpighian tubules of an insect

  14. Freshwater fishes • Take in water osmotically • Excrete a large volume of dilute urine • Marine bony fishes • Lose water osmotically • Compensate by drinking seawater and excreting salt through gills • Produce a small volume of urine

  15. Sharks and other marine cartilaginous fishes • Retain large amounts of urea • Take in water osmotically through the gills • Excrete a large volume of urine

  16. Osmo-regulationin fishes

  17. Marine mammals • Ingest seawater with their food • Produce a concentrated urine

  18. Terrestrial vertebrates • Must conserve water • Endotherms have high metabolic rate • Produce a large volume of nitrogenous wastes • Conserve water through efficient kidneys and other adaptations

  19. Excretory organs in terrestrial vertebrates

  20. Vertebrate kidney • Functions in excretion and osmoregulation • Is vital in maintaining homeostasis • Its structure and function are adapted to the lifestyle of the animal

  21. Organs of the mammalian urinary system • Kidney • Key organ of the urinary system, the principal excretory system in humans and other vertebrates • In mammals, the kidney produces urine

  22. Organs of the mammalian urinary system, cont. • Urine passes through the ureters to the urinary bladder • During urination, the urine is released through the urethra

  23. The human urinary system

  24. Structure of the kidney • Outer portion is the renal cortex • Inner portion is the renal medulla • Contains eight to ten renal pyramids • Tip of each pyramid is a renal papilla • Urine flows into collecting ducts, which empty through a renal papilla into the renal pelvis • Functioning unit is a nephron

  25. Structure of the kidney

  26. Structure of the nephron

  27. Detailed view of Bowman’s capsule

  28. Urine formation is accomplished by the • Filtration of plasma • Reabsorption of needed materials • Secretion of substances such as potassium and hydrogen ions into the renal tubule

  29. General regions of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion

  30. Filtration membrane of the kidney

  31. Movement of water, ions, and urea through the renal tubule and collecting duct

  32. Concentration of the filtrate as it moves through the nephron

  33. Urine volume is regulated by ADH • Released by the pituitary gland in response to an increase in osmotic concentration of the blood • ADH increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water • As a result, more water is reabsorbed

  34. Regulation of urine volume by ADH

  35. Aldosterone andatrial natriuretic peptide work antagonistically • When blood pressure decreases, cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete renin, which leads to production of angiotensin II • Angiotensin II stimulates aldosterone release, which raises blood pressure

  36. When blood pressure increases • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increases sodium excretion • Inhibits aldosterone secretion • These actions increase urine output and lower blood pressure

  37. Hormonal control of kidney function