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Quantitative Detection of Parkinson's Disease Symptoms

Quantitative Detection of Parkinson's Disease Symptoms

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Quantitative Detection of Parkinson's Disease Symptoms

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  1. Quantitative Detection of Parkinson's Disease Symptoms Advisor: Dr. Anita Mahadevan-Jansen Faraz Ali James Lugge Ernest Moore Mahesh Parlikad

  2. Dr. Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, PhD. • Brain no longer able to direct or control muscle movement in a normal manner. • Asst. Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Neurological Surgery • Research: • Optical techniques for diagnosis of pathology • Fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy in cancer detection • optical techniques that use laser to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue in neurosurgery

  3. What is Parkinson’s Disease? • Neurodegenerative disorder caused by damaged or dead dopamine-neurons in the substantia nigra • Dopamine: neurotransmitter that carries information from neuron to neuron and eventually out to the muscles • Half a million people every year are affected by Parkinson’s

  4. Symptoms • Tremor or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face • Rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk • Slowness of motor movements • Postural instability or impaired balance and coordination • Reduced blink rate of eyes

  5. Treatment • Drugs: Levodopa/ L-DopaDrugs designed to mimic dopamine effects or counteract acetylcholine effects • Pallidotomy: Section of globus pallidus removed • Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) : Implants stimulators that block brain signals causing rigidity, tremors and other symptoms

  6. Quantitative Measurement of Symptoms • Goal Statement: To be able to associate numerical values to a patient’s before and after treatment symptoms. • Methods used currently are based on “touch and feel” and are subjective.

  7. Last Year’s Progress • EOG • Designed Potentiometer Glove

  8. Proposed Ideas • Blink Rate Detector • Symptom of Parkinson’s: decreased blink rate • Means of detection: EOG • Strain-Gauged base Rigidity Detector • Symptom of Parkinson’s: hand and neck muscles tense • Means of detection: Strain gauge • Acetylcholine Detector • Symptom of Parkinson’s: hand and neck muscles contracted • Means of detection: invasive neurotransmitter detection • Skin Conductivity Detector • Symptom of Parkinson’s: arm and hand muscles contracted • Means of detection: GSRS detects change in skin conductivity • Pneumatic Piston-based Rigidity Detector System • Symptom of Parkinson’s: arm muscles tense • Means of detection: measure PSI required to rotate arm

  9. Reduced Eye Blinking • Loss of automatic control is one of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. • Reduced eye blinking is a feasible symptom that can be quantified by use of an electrooculargram (EOG). • LED + detector combination that detects light reflected back from the eye. PROBLEMS: -Requires a long period of time for useable results -Could become intrusive to patient or Doctor

  10. Muscle Rigidity Strain Detection • Another symptom is rigid muscles which can occur in the limbs or neck. • A strain gauge can be used to detect the alleviation of rigid muscles. • Strain gauges can detect a change as low as 500με. PROBLEMS: -High-sensitivity strain gauges are expensive -Slight motions are detected and could alter results

  11. Other Designs • Accelerometer • Requires patient to be having a tremor • GSRS • Not sensitive enough • Not fast enough • Acetylcholine Detector • Invasive • Multi-Channel System • Too bulky • Requires additional personnel to work system

  12. Final Design Pneumatic Piston-based Rigidity Detection System • Piston secured to the upper arm and forearm via two cuffs • Fluid (air) injected into the piston • PSI measured to determine how much rigidity was relieved

  13. Have set up weekly meetings with Dr. Kao every Monday at 2:00 PM Have working prototype Working on improving the prototype Meeting With Dr. Kao and Dr. Conrad to get IRB approval for testing on patients in the OR Current Status

  14. Future Work • Work with Dr. Kao to perfect our final design • Test on selves • Test on patients

  15. Thank You Questions? Comments? Suggestions?