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The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety Culture

The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety Culture

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The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety Culture

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  1. The Integral Role Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professionals Play in Implementing a Safety Culture Dina M. Siegel CIH, CSP, CBSP Los Alamos National Laboratory

  2. Culture? Safety Culture? • Culture is (International Atomic Agency): • societal “memory” • what we have always done • how people look at their environment and themselves • assumptions • several levels • artifacts • values • basic assumptions • Safety culture is: • understanding of catastrophic consequences when control is relinquished • recognition that attention to safety is essential to performing mission

  3. Hey, what is our role anyway? The role of an IH as defined by AIHA • Protecting People: The goal of the industrial hygienist is to keep workers, their families, and the community healthy and safe. They play a vital part in ensuring that federal, state, and local laws and regulations are followed in the work environment. • Industrial Hygienists Work With the Issues That Concern Us All

  4. Typical roles of the industrial hygienist (AIHA)

  5. OSHA’s view Creating a Safety Culture is the single greatest impact on accident reduction of any process. It is for this single reason that developing these cultures should be top priority for all managers and supervisors.Safety cultures consist of shared beliefs, practices, and attitudes that exist at an establishment. Culture is the atmosphere created by those beliefs and attitudes which shape our behavior. An organizations safety culture is the result of a number of factors.

  6. OSHA’s view, cont. • Factors: • Management and employee norms, assumptions, attitudes, beliefs • Values, myths, stories • Policies and procedures • Supervisor priorities, responsibilities and accountability • Production and bottom line pressures vs. quality issues • Actions or lack of action to correct unsafe behaviors • Employee training and motivation • Employee involvement or "buy-in"

  7. OSHA’s view, cont. • In a strong safety culture, everyone feels responsible for safety and pursues it on a daily basis. • A company with a strong safety culture typically experiences few at-risk behaviors. • Creating a safety culture takes time. • Top management support of a safety culture often results in acquiring a safety director, providing resources for accident investigations, and safety training. • Further progress toward a true safety culture uses accountability systems. • Any process that brings all levels within the organization together to work on a common goal that everyone holds in high value will strengthen the organizational culture. • .

  8. Define safety responsibilities for all levels of the organization • Develop upstream measures • Align management and supervisors • Implement a process that holds managers and supervisors accountable • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives & disciplinary systems for safety and health • Ensure the safety committee is functioning appropriately • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring suggestions, concerns, or problems forward. • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the timeliness in hazard correction. • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and near misses. • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation system • Obtain Top Management "Buy-in” • Continue Building "Buy-in“ • Build Trust • Conduct Self Assessments/Bench Marking • Initial Training • Establish a Steering Committee • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals, measures, and strategic and operational plans. • Align the Organization. Define Specific Roles and responsibilities Develop a System of Accountability • Develop Measures and an ongoing measurement and feedback system. • Develop Policies for Recognition, rewards, incentives, and ceremonies. Awareness Training and Kick-off for all employees. Implement Process Changes via involvement of management, union (if one is present), and employees using a "Plan To Act" process Total Quality Management (TQM).Continually Measure performance, Communicate Results, and Celebrate Successes., On-going Support - Reinforcement, feedback, reassessment, mid-course corrections, and on-going training is vital to sustaining continuous improvement. OSHA’s steps to developing a safety culture (1) • Define safety responsibilities for all levels of the organization. • Develop upstream measures. • Align management and supervisors. • Implement a process that holds managers and supervisors accountable. • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives & disciplinary systems for safety and health. • Ensure the safety committee is functioning appropriately. • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring suggestions, concerns, or problems forward. • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the timeliness in hazard correction.

  9. Define safety responsibilities for all levels of the organization • Develop upstream measures • Align management and supervisors • Implement a process that holds managers and supervisors accountable • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives & disciplinary systems for safety and health • Ensure the safety committee is functioning appropriately • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring suggestions, concerns, or problems forward. • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the timeliness in hazard correction. • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and near misses. • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation system • Obtain Top Management "Buy-in” • Continue Building "Buy-in“ • Build Trust • Conduct Self Assessments/Bench Marking • Initial Training • Establish a Steering Committee • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals, measures, and strategic and operational plans. • Align the Organization. Define Specific Roles and responsibilities Develop a System of Accountability • Develop Measures and an ongoing measurement and feedback system. • Develop Policies for Recognition, rewards, incentives, and ceremonies. Awareness Training and Kick-off for all employees. Implement Process Changes via involvement of management, union (if one is present), and employees using a "Plan To Act" process Total Quality Management (TQM).Continually Measure performance, Communicate Results, and Celebrate Successes., On-going Support - Reinforcement, feedback, reassessment, mid-course corrections, and on-going training is vital to sustaining continuous improvement. OSHA’s steps to developing a safety culture (2) • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and near misses. • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation system. • Obtain top management buy-in. • Continue building buy-in. • Build trust. • Conduct self assessments/benchmarking. • Initial training. • Establish a Steering Committee. • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals, measures, and strategic and operational plans. • Align the organization.

  10. Define safety responsibilities for all levels of the organization • Develop upstream measures • Align management and supervisors • Implement a process that holds managers and supervisors accountable • Evaluate and rebuild any incentives & disciplinary systems for safety and health • Ensure the safety committee is functioning appropriately • Provide multiple paths for employees to bring suggestions, concerns, or problems forward. • Develop a system that tracks and ensures the timeliness in hazard correction. • Ensure reporting of injuries, first aids, and near misses. • Evaluate and rebuild the incident investigation system • Obtain Top Management "Buy-in” • Continue Building "Buy-in“ • Build Trust • Conduct Self Assessments/Bench Marking • Initial Training • Establish a Steering Committee • Develop Site Safety Vision, key policies, goals, measures, and strategic and operational plans. • Align the Organization. Define Specific Roles and responsibilities Develop a System of Accountability • Develop Measures and an ongoing measurement and feedback system. • Develop Policies for Recognition, rewards, incentives, and ceremonies. Awareness Training and Kick-off for all employees. Implement Process Changes via involvement of management, union (if one is present), and employees using a "Plan To Act" process Total Quality Management (TQM).Continually Measure performance, Communicate Results, and Celebrate Successes., On-going Support - Reinforcement, feedback, reassessment, mid-course corrections, and on-going training is vital to sustaining continuous improvement. OSHA’s steps to developing a safety culture (3) • Define specific roles and responsibilities. • Develop a system of accountability. • Develop measures and an ongoing measurement and feedback system. • Develop policies for recognition, rewards, incentives, and ceremonies. • Awareness training and kick-off. • Implement process changes via involvement of management, union (if one is present), and employees using a "Plan To Act" process /Total Quality Management (TQM). • Continually measure performance, communicate results, and celebrate successes. • On-going support.

  11. What does safety culture mean in DOE/NNSA? “DOE strives to provide an open culture that not only embraces, but also actively seeks out evidence of potential problems so that any problems can be corrected in a timely manner” . (Glenn Podonsky, DNSFB, May 22, 2012) • December 5, 2011 DOE memo • Safety culture issues underline need for intensified effort • Broad assessment of safety culture within DOE • Responsibilities: • DOE Central Technical Authorities (CTAs): Ultimate responsibility, provide authority to line managers for establishing achieving and maintaining stringent safety performance expectation and requirements • Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS): Collaboration with CTA for safety policy and identification of OFIs/best practices, independent oversight and regulatory enforcement • Defense Nuclear Facility safety Board: recommendations and oversight • Integrated Safety Management System Guide 450.4-1 C, Safety through Standards and Managing Risk

  12. What does safety culture mean in DOE/NNSA for contractors? Carry out DOE/NNSA direction while fostering a work environment where every individual accepts responsibility for safe mission performance, demonstrates a questioning attitude and awareness of work conditions that may affect safety, and assists other employees and contractors in discouraging unsafe acts or practices.

  13. Safety culture definitions • INSAG*-4: “Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance.” (created after the Chernobyl Accident) • ACSNI Human Factors Study Group (UK): “Safety culture is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, competencies and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of an organization’s health and safety programmes. Organizations with a positive safety culture are characterized by communications founded on mutual trust, by shared perceptions of the importance of safety and by confidence in the efficacy of preventive measures.” • NRC**: “A good safety culture in a nuclear installation is a reflection of the values, which are shared throughout all levels of the organization and which are based on the belief that safety is important and that it is everyone's responsibility.” *International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group **Nuclear Regulatory Commission **

  14. You need “Good to Great” Operational Safety first! • Safety integrated into all aspects of an organization’s activities • Strategic planning • Senior management involvement • Communication with employees • Risk Control • Risk assessments • Controls implemented • Documented • Safety Management Systems • Metrics • Training • Attitude • Employee Involvement

  15. Safety Culture • Artifacts • Policies and procedures • Incident rates • Injury/illness rates • Awards and recognition • Using Personal Protective Equipment • Values • Safety is highest priority • No finger pointing • Lessons to be learned • Assumptions • Careless and clumsy people cause accidents • Some level of risk is always involved • Continuous improvement always possible

  16. Artifacts • Motivation/job satisfaction • Employee involvement • Working conditions • Measurements • Resource allocation • Collaboration/teamwork • Conflict resolution • Manager/employee relationship • housekeeping • Questioning attitude • Knowledge of man/operation interfaces • Management commitment to safety/Leadership • SAS (think SAT) • Self Assessments • Business drivers • No “science/production vs. safety” • Good relationship with stakeholders • Proactive • Change management • Quality • Compliance • Qualified/competent staff • R2/A2

  17. Values Assumptions • View of mistakes • View of safety • View of people • Systems thinking • Manager role • Leadership • Coaching • Support for safety improvement • Safety is a high priority • Safety can always be improved • Open communication • Organization learning • Formal training • Lessons learned • Learning teams

  18. The three stages: • Stage 1: Safety is based on rules and regulations • Stage 2: Safety is considered an organizational goal • Stage 3: Safety can always be improved An organization can exhibit any or all characteristics of multiple stages

  19. Stage 1

  20. Stage 2

  21. Stage 3 • Problems anticipated and dealt with before they occur. • Good collaboration • No goal conflict between safety and production. • Almost all mistakes are viewed in terms of process variability with the emphasis placed on understanding what has happened, rather than finding someone to blame. • Management's role is seen as coaching people to improve performance. • Learning from others, both inside and outside the organization, is valued. • People are respected and valued for their contribution. • The relationship between management and employees is mutually supportive. • People are aware of the impact of cultural issues, and these are considered in decision making. • People are rewarded for improving processes, as well as results. • People are considered to be an important part of organizational systems with attention given to satisfying their needs, and not just to achieve technical efficiency.

  22. So what is the IH/IS role in all of this? • As a professional: • Risk assessment • Worksite analysis • Exposure assessment • Self assessment of programs • Recommendations for controls • Communication up and down and across (ESH management, Line managers, workers, regulators) • Integrated safety evaluations (MSAs, etc.) • Environmental, rad, other SMEs. • IH/S Programs • Performance indicators • Walk arounds • Annual assessments

  23. So what is the IH/IS role in all of this? • As a worker: • Do you have some control over the outcome of the events? • Treat errors as learning opportunities • Overexposures • Own personal safety

  24. Safety cultures can weaken over time • Stage 1: Over-confidence Good past performance leading to self-satisfaction. • Stage 2: Complacency Occurrence of minor events that are subjected to minimum self-assessment, and delay in improvement programs. • Stage 3: Denial Number of minor events increases, with possibly a more significant event. These are treated as isolated events. Findings from audits are considered invalid. Root cause analysis not used. • Stage 4: Danger Several potentially serious events occur but management and employees reject criticism from audits or regulator, by considering their views biased. The oversight function is afraid to confront management. • Stage 5: Collapse Regulator intervenes to implement special evaluations. Management is overwhelmed and may need to be replaced. Major and very costly improvement needs to be implemented.

  25. What can you do? • Be creative and open to change • Work within teams, not individually • Listen • Coach • Take personal ownership for the change

  26. What else can you do? • Do you have some sort of worker involvement teams? Get involved with them! • LANL-WSST • Others?

  27. Integration of IH role with Safety culture

  28. References • IAEA-TECDOC-1329” Safety culture in nuclear installations, Guidance for use in the enhancement of safety culture, December 2002 • Recommendation 2011·1 to the Secretary of Energy, Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, Pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 2286a(a)(5), Atomic Energy Act of 1954, As Amended Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Public Meeting, Statement of Glenn S. Podonsky, Chief Health Safety and Security Officer, Office of Health Safety and Security, US. Department of Energy, May 22, 2012. • Department of Energy's (DOE's) Implementation Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2011-1, Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). • AIHA.org • OSHA.gov

  29. Safety Culture Thank you! Dina Siegel 505 665 2977 dinas@lanl.gov