Aspects • Cardio Respiratory Endurance • Muscular Endurance • Strength • Power • Speed • Flexibility (Suppleness) • Skill Related Fitness
Cardio Respiratory Endurance(C.R.E) • The ability of the & to work efficiently over a prolonged period of time. • To improve C.R.E a body needs to work for long intervals at a low level of intensity. • The body requires a lot of oxygen to supply the working muscles • (This is known as AEROBIC activity).
What test can be used to measure C.R.E? • 20m progressive shuttle run test – (beep test). • Harvard Step Test. • 12 minute run - (12min cooper run).
Effects of C.R.E on Performance • In activities that take a long period of time good CRE provides you with the chance to perform at the top level for longer. • You can carry out skills and concentrate longer. (Thus reducing errors in play due to fatigue). • You are more likely to recover faster.
Types of Training. • Interval training. • Fartlek training. • Continuous training. • Circuit training.
Muscular Endurance(L.M.E.) • The ability of a of to work efficiently over a prolonged period of time. • To improve L.M.E a group of muscles needs to work for long intervals at a low level of intensity. • What activities do you think require a high level of muscular endurance?
What tests can be used to measure L.M.E? • 1 minute sit-up test • 1 minute press-up test • 1 minute squat thrust test • Bench Lift • Bicep Curls – (Low weight – High Reps)
Effects of L.M.E on Performance. • If muscles become fatigued during an activity your performance level will drop. • If muscles become fatigued you will not be able to move as quickly around the playing area, and errors may occur during play. • For 4 different activities in your standard grade course, explain the possible performance benefits of having improved L.M.E?
Types of Training. • Circuit training. • Weight training. • Skills Training – (Golf).
Strength • Strength is the maximum amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can exert in a single effort. • Strength is split into three types: Static – pushing against another oncoming force. Explosive – using maximum energy in a single action e.g. throwing Dynamic Strength – continuously moving the body at speed e.g. 100m front crawl
What test can be used to measure Strength? • Static – Handgrip Dynamometer • Explosive – Standing long jump • Dynamic – Maximum press-ups in 30sec
Effects of Strength on Performance • An increased capacity to complete actions which link physical and skill related aspects of fitness. • Sport specific benefits could include: greater balance; ability to throw/kick further; stronger punch etc • For 4 different activities in your standard grade course, explain the possible performance benefits of having improved strength?
Types of Training • Weight training: Static – Heavy weight/ few reps Explosive – Medium weight quickly/ medium reps Dynamic – Light weight quickly/ high reps
Types of Muscle Action • Isometric – muscles required to be stable/still – Gymnastics • Isokinetic – muscles require control through a range of movements – Footballer kicking • Isotonic – muscles shorten or lengthen as necessary – bicep curls
Speed • The ability to cover a distance or perform a movement in a short time. • To Improve your speed you need to work muscle groups for short intervals at a relatively high level of intensity.
What tests can be used to measure speed? • There are various tests for measuring speed, most of which involve sprinting over short distances. • This would normally be done over 10m or 20meters. Speed tests are easy to set up and easy to record.
Effects of Speed on Performance. • When training for speed it is useful to measure your initial level of speed in various exercises and various activities. • Improved speed should mean that you have the capacity to complete actions which link physical and skill related aspects of fitness.
Types of Training • Speed training involves you using anaerobic energy. For this reason you need to make sure you have a balanced work to rest ratio. • Interval training is the most common type of training used to develop speed. For example – Sprinting for 5 seconds, resting for 20 seconds. (Repeat)
Power • Power is the combination of Strength and Speed. • To improve your power you need to work muscle groups for short intervals at high speed.
What tests can be used to measure power? • There are two main ways of developing power. These are :- - Vertical Jump Test – Jumping as high as possible from a standing start. - Standing Long Jump – Jumping as far as possible from a standing start.
Effects of Power on Performance • Improved power means that a performer has the capacity to complete actions which link physical and skill-related aspects of fitness. This may include dynamic balance, co-ordination, reaction time, agility etc. • In effect this may allow a person to kick or throw further/ harder or jump higher or further etc
Types of Training • This would include a combination of speed and strength training. An example of this would be:- - Weight training using mid to high weights, low repetitions, at speed.
Flexibility • The range of movement across a joint. • Good flexibility reduces the chance of straining or pulling muscles. • Controlled and frequent stretching exercises can maintain and improve a persons level of suppleness.
What tests can be used to measure flexibility? • There are different types of testing for flexibility. The most common ones are:- - Sit and Reach – (Flexibility across the joints). - Trunk Extensions – (Flexibility in the lower back).
Effects of Flexibility on performance. • This will allow a performer to operate with minimum effort and achieve maximum efficiency. • Increased flexibility will allow a performer an increased range of movement.
Types of Flexibility. • Static – Holding a balance in gymnastics. • Dynamic – A high jump performer arching their back when performing.
Types of Training • A flexibility circuit would be one way of training to improve flexibility. • To improve flexibility a joint needs to be moved beyond the point at which the performer feels resistance. • Stretching can either be Static or Dynamic