Irrigation and Engineering Design By: Steve Taylor, Shane Chandler, & Paul Wohler
312 BC: The first aqueduct, the Aqua Appia, was built by the Roman Empire History
What are the different types of Irrigation? • Surface Irrigation • Sub-Surface Irrigation • Basin Irrigation • Border/Furrow Irrigation • Overhead Irrigation • Trickle/Drip Irrigation
Surface Irrigation • A method of irrigation in which water is applied to the land by allowing it to flow by simple gravity, before infiltrating. • Where can you use it? • Low Value Crops • Grazing fields • Recreational Use • No attempt is made to stop fields from flooding
Water pumps pump water up hills to irrigate the land Surface Irrigation cont.
Sub-Surface Irrigation • A method of irrigation that applies water below the surface directly to the root of the plant • Disadvantages • Extremely expensive • Costs run $500-$1000 per acre • Not suitable for most lands • Very complex and labor intensive engineered design
Basin Irrigation • Irrigation method where water comes from a large source of water and then flooded into a field. • Only useful with deep root plants • Water contained in the field through dikes and/or raised banks
Border/Furrow Irrigation • A type of irrigation which allows water to flood furrows between crop rows. • Furrow- a long shallow trench in the ground • Irrigation method same as basin except there are no walls to contain the water • Usually works good in fields that are sloped
Over-head Irrigation • Water is pumped in under pressure and sprayed down onto the plants from flat spray nozzles. • Disadvantage • With overhead irrigation the foliage of the crop gets wet if leaves stay wet for 10 to 24 hours then fungi and bacteria disease can grow/bad for runoff • Need abundant supply of water • Advantage • Good control of water
Moving over-head boom Water disperses evenly Can move easily through whole crop Water gun Shoots water into the field through the air Can cover several acres of field without moving the device Over-head Irrigation cont.
Trickle/Drip Irrigation • Method in which water drips to the soil from perforated tubes, hoses, or emitters.
Advantages Extreme efficiency in well-tuned systems Water provided to a specific area for less water wastage Steady water flow Water applied directly to the roots Disadvantages Water slowly provided Time consuming for design Trickle/Drip Irrigation cont.
Cost Crop type Soil type Topography Irrigation efficiency Drainage Required Water Required Soil or crop Damage Restriction on irrigation
Water use Measurement • Rain Fall • Measured by depth in inches • Irrigation • Measure by depth in inches • V (gallons available)/22,690gallons per acre inches = total acre inches covered