The Egyptian and Nubian Empires - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Egyptian and Nubian Empires

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  1. The Egyptian and Nubian Empires Chapter 4 Section 1

  2. Setting the Stage • Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile River • United into a kingdom around 3000 B.C. • During Middle Kingdom (2080-1640 B.C.) trade enriched Egypt • South of Thebes, a major kingdom was developing in the region of Nubia • They traded with one another and influenced each other culturally

  3. Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt • After the prosperity of the Middle Kingdom, Egypt descended into war and violence • Weak pharaohs and power struggles among rival nobles • Kingdom fell to the Hyksos • Asiatic invaders who had chariots • Ruled Egypt from 1640-1570 B.C. • Shook the Egyptian confidence in their desert barriers

  4. Hebrews Migrate to Egypt • Moved into Egypt during the Hyksos rule • Came to Canaan around 1800 B.C. • Moved to Egypt around 1650 B.C. • Racially similar to the Hyksos • Egyptians resented the Hyksos, but were powerless to remove them

  5. Expulsion and Slavery • Around 1600 B.C., a series of warlike rulers began to restore Egypt’s power • Queen Ahhotep • Took over after husband was killed in battle • Kamose won a great victory over the Hyksos • His successors drove them out completely into Palestine • Hebrews remained in Egypt and were enslaved and forced to work • Didn’t leave Egypt until b/w 1500-1200 B.C. (Exodus)

  6. The New Kingdom of Egypt • After the Hyksos were removed the pharaohs of the New Kingdom sought to strengthen Egypt by building an empire • New Kingdom-1570-1075 B.C. • During this Kingdom, it was wealthier and more powerful than ever before • Bronze weapons and chariots, they became conquerors

  7. Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule • Hatshepsut declared herself pharaoh around 1472 B.C. • She took over because her stepson (the heir) was too young • Spent he reign encouraging trade instead of waging war • Sent an expedition to Land of Punt • In search of myrrh, frankincense, and fragrant ointments used in religious ceremonies • Brought back those + gold, ivory, and unusual plants/animals

  8. Thutmose the Empire Builder • Thutmose III was Hatshepsut’s stepson • A more warlike ruler than his stepmom • Led an invasion into Palestine and Syria • Also pushed south into Nubia • Egypt was now a mighty empire • Now controlled lands far beyond • Drew wealth from them • Contact with other cultures brought new ideas

  9. The Egyptians and the Hittites • Their conquest of Palestine/Syria brought them in conflict with the Hittites • Hittites had moved into Asia Minor around 1900 B.C. and then expanded south into Palestine • Main clash was at Kadesh around 1285 B.C. • RamsesIIand a Hittite king made a treaty • “Peace and brotherhood between us forever.” • Lasted for the rest of the century

  10. An Age of Builders • Built grand buildings like those of the Old Kingdom • Hid their tombs in desert cliffs • Valley of Kings (Thebes) • Ramses II (1290-1224 B.C.) stood out among the great builders • Karnak-built a temple to Amon-Re (chief god) • Abu Simbel-temple built into a cliff

  11. The Empire Declines • The empire slowly came apart 1200 around B.C. • Other’s rose to challenge their power • Shortly after Ramses died, the entire eastern Mediterranean suffered a wave of invasions

  12. Invasions by Land and Sea • Both Egyptian and Hittite empires were attack by “Sea Peoples” • May have been the Philistines • Caused great destruction • Tribes of Palestine often rebelled against the Egyptians • Vast desert no longer served as a barrier against Libyan raids

  13. Egypt’s Empire Fades • After these invasions, Egypt never recovered its power • Empire broke into regional units and many small kingdoms formed • Egypt soon fell to the Libyans • Established independent dynasties • 950-730 B.C. Libyan pharaohs ruled Egypt • They adopted the Egyptian culture

  14. The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region • Egypt dominated Nubia for centuries • Kingdom of Kush-lasted for about 1000 years • As Egypt lost power, Kush began to emerge as a regional power • Nubia now established its own Kushite dynasty in Egypt

  15. The People of Nubia • Nubia lay south of Egypt • B/w first cataract and the division of the Blue/White Nile • Nubia linked Egypt with the rest of the interior of Africa in terms of trade • Goods and ideas flowed back and forth along the river • First Nubian kingdom, Kerma, arose around 2000 B.C.

  16. The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia • With revival of Egyptian power (New Kingdom), they forced their rule on Kush • The Egyptians strongly influenced the Nubians • Napata (Kush’s capital) became center for the spread of Egyptian culture to other African traders • Kushite princes went to Egypt to learn the language/gods • Adopted customs and clothing of elite Egyptians • When Egypt was conquered by the Libyans, the Nubians saw themselves as better guards of Egyptian culture • Conquered Egypt and ousted the Libyans

  17. Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne • 751 B.C., Piankhi (Kushite King) overthrew the Libyan dynasty in Egypt • United the entire Nile Valley • Became Egypt’s 25th dynasty • His dynasty was short lived • 671 B.C., the Assyrians conquered Egypt • Kushites were forced to retreat to the south • Even though conquered they experienced a golden age

  18. The Golden Age of Meroe • After defeat, the Kushite royal family moved to Meroe • Located near Red Sea • Became active in trade among Africa, Arabia, and India • Used the natural resources and thrived for centuries • Had large amounts of Iron Ore • Became a leader in making iron weapons and tools • Traded with those of Arabia and India • Took iron out and brought back jewelry, cotton, silver, and glass

  19. The Decline of Meroe • Was prosperous from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150 • Aksum, a kingdom to the south contributed to their fall • They dominated North African trade due to a sea port on the Red Sea • Aksum would defeat Meroe around A.D. 350