Download
lorin anderson university of south carolina n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina

Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina

273 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina

  2. A Fundamental Truth We don’t see the world as it is; we see the world through the lens through which we look at it.

  3. Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much to bring order out of chaos in the field of education. It could furnish the conceptual framework around which our descriptions of educational programs and experiences could be oriented. It could furnish a framework for the development of educational theories and research. It could furnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and for orienting them to the varied possibilities of education” (Bloom, 1949)

  4. Who were the taxonomists? • Post World War II • Students received course credit by passing the examinations (credit-by-examination) • Quite obviously, the exams had to be based on course objectives (validity) and of sufficient length to be reliable. • University Examiners • Responsible for designing or helping to design end-of-course examinations

  5. They Needed a Set of Categories that Cut-Across Subject Areas “Although the objectives … may be specified in an almost unlimited number of ways, the student behaviors involved in these objectives can be represented by a relatively small number of classes. Therefore, the taxonomy is designed to be a classification of the student behaviors which represent the intended outcomes of the educational process” (p. 18).

  6. Looking Through a New Lens

  7. Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

  8. Without the Lens The student will recall the names of the parts of a flower.

  9. With the Lens The student will recall the names of the parts of a flower. This is a knowledge objective.

  10. Objectives were used to form categories; then categories were used to classify objectives.80 % of the objectives fell into the Knowledge category

  11. The Revision • Began in November 1996 • Led by David Krathwohl • Involved cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists, teacher educators, and measurement and assessment specialists. • Group met twice a year for four years. • Draft completed in 2000; text published in 2001. • Two books – soft cover for teachers and other “practitioners” and hard cover for academicians.

  12. In education, objectives are statements of what we want students to learn as a result of the instruction we provide. Standards are simply mandated objectives.

  13. The Common Format of Objectives Subject Verb Object S V O

  14. The SUBJECT is the Learner or the Student. The student (will) The student (should) The students (might) Quite often, the subject is implicit or understood.

  15. The verbs provide clues as to the cognitive process category intended by the person or persons writing the standard. Adopted from the original Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, there are six cognitive process categories.

  16. Bloom Revised Bloom • Create • Evaluation • Evaluate • Synthesis • Analyze • Analysis • Apply • Application • Understand • Comprehension • Knowledge • Remember

  17. Each of the six cognitive process categories was divided into specific cognitive processes. Nineteen (19) specific cognitive processes were identified.

  18. Remember Understand Recognizing Recalling Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Cognitive Processes

  19. Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Executing Implementing Differentiating Organizing Attributing Checking Critiquing Generating Planning Producing Cognitive Processes (continued)

  20. THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing

  21. Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e.g., math, science, social studies). The objects specify the CONTENT of the standard. For several reasons, CONTENT was replaced by KNOWLEDGE.

  22. What are Differences Between Content and Knowledge? • Content is subject-matter specific. If you focused on content, then, you would need as many taxonomies as there are subject matters (e.g., one for science, one for history, etc.). • Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student. When content gets inside the student, it becomes knowledge. This transformation of content to knowledge takes place through the cognitive processes used by the student.

  23. Four Types of Knowledge • Factual Knowledge • Conceptual Knowledge • Procedural Knowledge • Metacognitive Knowledge

  24. HOT ARTICHOKE DIP (Serves 10 to 14) • 2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts • 16 oz. mayonnaise • 1 c. grated Parmesan cheese • Garlic salt (optional) • ==================================== • Drain artichoke hearts. • Mash artichokes with fork. • Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic salt. • Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or until cheese is melted. • Serve with crackers or party rye.

  25. THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

  26. THE TAXONOMY TABLE 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing A. Factual Knowledge A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 B. Conceptual Knowledge B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 C. Procedural Knowledge C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 D. Metacognitive Knowledge D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6

  27. How it Works

  28. Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century, including NATO, the UN, and OPEC

  29. Verb = Explain Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century including NATO, the UN, and OPEC [Extraneous information]

  30. Verb = Explain = Understand Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual Knowledge

  31. Summarize the provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities

  32. Verb = Summarize Object = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution Including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities [Extraneous information]

  33. Verb = Summarize = Understand Object = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution = Factual Knowledge

  34. THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE Standard 2 CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE Standard 1 PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

  35. The SVO format of standards in combination with the two-dimensional structure of the Taxonomy Table allows us to classify standards so we better understand their intent and meaning in terms of student learning.

  36. Additional Benefits • Increase curriculum alignment • Improve validity of assessments • Improve quality of instruction

  37. Curriculum Alignment Curriculum Alignment Assessments Objectives Instructional Activities/ Materials

  38. Why is Alignment Important? • Increases validity of assessment • Increases students’ opportunity to learn • Provides more accurate estimates of teaching effectiveness • Permits better instructional decisions to be made

  39. Traditional Alignment • What content is included in the objective? • What content is included on the assessment(s)? • Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials? • If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment.

  40. Objectives ALIGNMENT USING THE TAXONOMY TABLE Assessments Instructional Activities

  41. THE ANATOMY OF AN ASSESSMENT TASK INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL (1) Written (2) Pictorial (3) Realia STEM (1) Question (2) Incomplete Statement (3) Directive RESPONSE (1) Short-Answer (2) Extended Response * Supply (Fill in the blank) * Written * Select (Multiple-choice, * Performance Matching, True-False)

  42. Remember Factual Knowledge • No Introductory Material • Stem as Question or Incomplete Statement • Supply (Recall) or Select (Recognize) Format

  43. Apply Procedural Knowledge • Introductory Material is Present • Stem as Directive • Extended Response Format

  44. Teaching Students to "Remember Factual Knowledge" • Focus students’ attention on important facts and terms, using, among other things, study guides, colors, and verbal markers. • 2. Structure the information to be remembered (e.g., outlines, diagrams, pictures). • Use repetition, incorporating songs and rhythmic activities (e.g., clapping, chanting, cheering). • Use mnemonic devices & acronyms; teach memory strategies (e.g., rehearsal, elaboration, making connections with familiar places and things). • 5. Use distributed practice.

  45. Teaching Students to "Understand Conceptual Knowledge“ 1. Emphasize defining features or key characteristics; ask "what makes X, X?" 2. Give examples, non-examples, and “near” examples. 3. Teach concepts in relation to one another; show connections and relationships using visual representations and graphic organizers. 4. Use metaphors and similes. 5. Use “hands-on” activities and manipulatives; build models.

  46. Why the Revised Taxonomy? • Historical link (1949 to the present) • Two dimensions match the structure of all objectives: subject-verb-object. • Complete “crossing” of rows with columns makes knowledge and cognitive processes equally important • The use of verbs is critical since the verbs represent the cognitive processes that students use on or with the content so that learning occurs