I. Origins of Civilization • Homo erectus and Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Europe and Asia. • Stone Age: 2 mil- 4,000 yrs ago • Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)- to 10,000 yrs ago • Neolithic (New Stone Age) • Hunters/Gatherers • Men hunted big game (mammoths, mastodons, etc) • Women gathered vegetables • Lived in camps and migrated
II. Agricultural Neolithic Revolution • Plants domesticated • Seeds scattered in places where they were likely to grow • Fire used to clear fields • Specialized tools used to plant and harvest • First took place in Middle East, Nile River Valley, Greece, and Central Europe. • Animals domesticated • Dogs. Sheep and goats domesticated for milk, meat, and wool. • Animals used to pull plows and for manure • Large population increase
Consequences of a Food Surplus • Specialization of labor • Improved technology: metal working, irrigation • Stratification of society • Possessions • Armies • Religion • Writing • Government • Population density increases • Voila…Civilization
III. Culture and Society • Worshiped ancestor and nature spirits • Mother Earth, Sky God, animals, springs, etc • Used megaliths (big stones) for burial chambers and calendar circles • Most people lived in small villages but some large towns included: • Jericho- 8000 BCE walled city on west bank of Jordan River • Catal Huyuk- 7000-5000 BCE central Anatolia • Center for trade (obsidian, pottery, baskets, cloth…) • Remains include decorative objects made of copper, lead, silver, and gold.
I. Geography/Resources • Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. • Little rainfall unpredictable flooding. • Warm climate and good soil excellent for farming • Dates, vegetables, reeds, fish, land for grazing
Sumer: The first • Successful agriculture, river management • Writing, cuneiform • Use of wheel • 12 month calendar, base 60, geometry • Polytheistic • Ziggurats • Ur, Erech, Kish 3000 BCE • Overthrown by Akkadians 1700 BCE
II. Cities, Kings, Trade • Cities and villages • Villages made surplus food for cities, cities provided protection and markets • Epic of Gilgamesh- Mesopotamian creation myth • Sargon the Great (2350 BCE) first documented ruler, ruled Akkadian Empire • Hammurabi 1792-1750 BCE • Ruler of Old Babylonian state • Known for his Law Code: laws, punishments
Sumer to Babylon to Assyria to Neo-Babylon to Neo-Assyria • Babylon fell to Hittites 1500 BCE • Hittites- FIRST TO USE IRON! Civ. Collapsed 1200BCE • Assyrians-organized, cruel, Nineveh, exiles, cultural diffusion
III. Religion and Technology • Anthropomorphic • Humans are servants of gods. Priests worshipped in temple complexes • Ziggurats- large step-pyramids in center of complex • Cuneiform- writing system, very complex • Irrigation, boats, bronze tools, brick-making were invented
I. Geography/Resources • Nile River Valley- • Floods regularly, rich soil. • Little rainfall. • Upper Egypt- southern part of Nile • Lower Egypt- northern part of Nile
II. Divine Kingship • Organized into 3 periods: • Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom • Pharaohs dominated state. • Regarded as gods • Pharaohs’ death thought to be journey back to land of gods, so funeral was very important • Buried in pyramids. Great pyramid built between 2550-2490 BCE
III. Administration/communication • Central government in capital city (Memphis/Thebes) • Bureaucracies kept track of land, labor and collected taxes. • Hieroglyphics- writing system based on picture symbols • Wrote on papyrus- made from stems of papyrus reed • Interested in acquiring resources. Traded with Nubia, Levant, Punt for • Gold, incense, cedar, ivory, ebony
IV. People and Beliefs • 1.5 million people • Lived in villages, cultivated land, and paid taxes • Religion based on cyclical view of nature, represented renewal of life. • The sun-god Re • Osiris god of underworld • King was chief priest • Spend large amounts of money on temples/tombs • Believed in afterlife: preserved pharaohs (mummification) and provided food in tombs
I. Environment and Material Culture • Indus River floods regularly twice a year. • Flourished from 2600-1900 BCE • Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa major urban centers • Surrounded by brick walls, streets in grid pattern, covered drainage system to carry waste. • High degree of standardization in city planning and building. • Technological achievements include: • Irrigation, potter’s wheel, kiln-baked bricks, bronze tools
II. Transformation • Collapsed and abandoned for unknown reasons around 1900 BCE. Possible reasons include • Invasion, natural disasters, ecological changes (dried up rivers).
I. Geography/Resources • North and South zones • North zone- Yellow (Huang He) River. Dry, cool climate • South zone- Yangzi River. Warm, plentiful rainfall. • Resources include • Timber, stone, metals. Climate suitable for growing rice.
II. Shang Period 1750-1045 BCE • Writing system developed, directly related to modern Chinese system. Based on “pictographs”, not letters • Religion centered on supreme god Di • Used oracle bones or tortoise shells to communicate w/ancestors • Worshipped through ruler’s ancestors • Made the ruler a link between heaven and earth • Provided rational for authoritarian rule. • Elite was a warrior class
III. Zhou Period 1045-221 BCE • Ruled by “Mandate of Heaven” • Ruler chosen by supreme deity. Proof of divine favor was prosperity and stability • Dynasty divided into 2 periods: • Western Zhou- 1045-771 BCE. • Eastern Zhou- 771-221 BCE Strength of central gov’t declines. • “Warring States Period”- states split and fight • Fought on horseback, used iron weapons
IV. Confucianism and Daoism • Confucius (551-479 BCE) • Assumes human nature is good • Has hierarchical view of universe, society, family • Concerned with establishing moral government • Virtue can be cultivated by good behavior • Daoism founded by Laozi (c. 500 BCE) • Universe is always changing and people should accept it as it is. • Embraces simplicity and non-action. • No absolute moral standards
Olmec and Chavin 1200-250 BCE Olmec Chavin
I. Mesoamerican Olmec 1200-400 BCE • Located along coast of Mexico • Raised fields provided agricultural surpluses • Produced corn, squash, beans • Urban centers included San Lorenzo, La Venta, Tres Zapotes • Large earthen mounds dominated urban centers. Used for rituals and political activities. • Political structure built around kinship • Large heads carved from basalt suggested authority of rulers • Power of rulers rested in use of elaborate religious rituals.
II. South American Chavin 900-250 BCE • Located in Andes, capital Chavin de Huantar at 10,300 ft elevation • Strategic location allowed leaders to control trade, became powerful. • Linked coastal regions with Amazonian regions • Used llamas to transport goods • Architectural signature was large complex of multilevel platforms. Prestigious buildings constructed on them. • Built roads, bridges, temples, irrigation and drainage projects that would influence later American civilizations