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POLH 1038: The historiography of European Integration PowerPoint Presentation
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POLH 1038: The historiography of European Integration

POLH 1038: The historiography of European Integration

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POLH 1038: The historiography of European Integration

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    1. POLH 1038: The historiography of European Integration

    2. . Historiography of European Integration, POLH1038 / A. Credits: 4 ECTS (4 op) Required readings: 1. Dinan, Desmond (ed.): Origins and Evolution of the European Union (The New European Union Series, Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 297-324. 2. Milward, Alan: The European Rescue of the Nation State (Routledge, London, 2nd revised edition, 2000) OR Moravcsik, Andrew: The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht (Cornell University Press, 1998)

    3. Book-exam and self-study: A book-exam is a self-study exam which serves an auxiliary role, helping students to deepen their knowledge in a particular field or issue. Book exams are taken once a month on the regular exam day of the Department of Political Studies, on Friday, 12.00-16.00. Exam dates available: Registration: Online: Registration for the book exams takes place through NettiOpsu ( Physical registration through the envelopes of the Department of Contemporary History At least one week before the exam In a hurry, you can participate in the exam sessions of other departments. Do not stretch it, though

    4. Reading the books Introduction, conclusion, table of contents. The main argument of a book, the most important chapters Book reviews (the good kind) The questions: Open questions, closed questions Example: Odysseus: Open question: Ulysse loses his compagnons along his journey. Elaborate on the signification of this. Closed question: While Ulysse navigates, what happens in Ithaca? Closed and open question: Describe the role of the Gods in Ulysses journey, and elaborate on the signification of this role Your knowledge of the mainds ideas developed in the books. A capacity to organize your thoughts clearly and understandably. USE ELEMENTS FROM THE BOOKS! (The Capital and economy) ANSWER THE QUESTION! Language: Understandable, clear, to the point

    5. To find the books: The Nelli portal through the website of the University library Browsing libraries in Turku E-books The textbook library of the Faculty of Social Sciences In the Educarium building ASK! My own copy Buying the books? Any questions while reading the books? Ask me

    6. History and theory History-averse social scientists; theory-averse historians But European integration is a forced meeting point of social scientists who take history seriously, and historians who take theory seriously Integration has in general attracted theoretically oriented scholarship The historians task in integration studies?

    7. Main questions for the Historian How and why did the EC come about? What have been the driving forces behind integration? Why did it survive? Why was European reconstruction so successful after 1945? How did the Franco-German partnership come about? The significance of particular actors (leaders?) The significance of particular events and phases in integration Histories of negotiations, decision-making, personalities: history of political behaviour, political and diplomatic history Economic history: integration and convergence Need for theories is obvious

    8. Narratives and interpretations Narratives as stories on History Interpretations as contending views on the way things went and why they went that way Often, agreement on the events and differences in interpretations The main evolution: from Walter Lipgens to Andrew Moravcsik, from the heroic narrative to a scientific appraisal of what happened, why, how can it be theorized Differences in national approaches and the barrier of language? English-language literature, French literature, German literature Most of what we will see is in English Differences, yet agreements on the main points

    9. The Federalist narrative What Milward denounces in his book (the lives and teachings of the European saints, p. 318) Dominating interpretation from the 1940s to the 1970s, still dominant in some quarters Walter Lipgens, Richard Mayne, Jean Monnets memoirs The European integration finds its origins in the works of great men looking beyond their nations towards a European ideal where the community of Europe would win over national differences. Finds the origins of European integration in the pre war Pan-European and federalist movements. A political process based on ideals: Christian ideals, critic of the nation-state Recently, demands more efficiency in managing Europe, and thus more federalism A political narrative: Moral justification for integration as a greater cause; critic of the evils of intergovernmentalism; federalist rhetoric; praises achievemnts and loathes failures (Hague Congress 1948, EDC 1954)

    10. Neo-functionalism An evolution of the federalist narrative, a more realistic view on the process of integration Spill-over effect no economic determinism; political changes in the behaviour of governments Integration as a sporadic and conflictual process, a war waged at state and non-state level, in economy, culture and politics The role of non-state actors Interest groups and social movements providing the dynamic of integration Ernst Haas, Leon S. Lindberg, Joseph S. Nye, Philippe Schmitter

    11. Alan Milward, the revisionnist D. Dinan: the Milwardian onslaught: An economic historian by trade, specialist of Britains economic history The Reconstruction of Western Europe 194551,1984 Change in the conditions of the game: greater access to national and other archives since the late 1970s (the 30 years rule). Postulates the impossibility to separate politics from economics and economics from politics Strong criticism towards both the federalist and neofunctionalist views. Doubts influence of ideas and societal movements, ridicules the cult of leaders and exceptional men A state-centric explanation The nation-state in 1945 Integration driven by national economic and social interests, amongst them mostly for Western European the salvation of welfare-state systems and the reaffirmation of the states legitimacy The nation state and the supranation are mutually reinforcing Supranational solutions relatively few, a choice to be made, a choice made in favor of integration over simple cooperation European integration as the arm of the European nation-states to realize things that were out of their reach Sources, primacy of national interests, mutual dependence of the nation-state with the supranational: nation states choose to surrender sovereignty in a supranational entity when it suited them to go beyond traditional interdependence

    12. Andrew Moravcsik Empirical evidence and historical case studies with a theoretical goal A state-centric view A focus on commercial interests to the exclusion of other things Big member states at the center Liberal intergovernmentalism Bargaining between states which interests are not fixed but elaborated through the construction of preferences (the CHOICE for Europe) These national preferences are projected in a bargaining process between states Formation of national preferences, then interstate bargaining. Once supranational institutions are created, their tendency to trigger more integration No supranationality, just states Criticized heavily by historians for two reasons: his theoretical approach and his methodology: De Gaulles motivations for his European policy Criticized point for point by Jeffrey Vanke for example. The theoretical approach remains

    13. The common ground Both Milward and Moravcsik seek a theory of European integration based on historical evidence The scientifization of European integration studies Cross-breeding between political science, economy and history Aesthetic element: Milwards prose

    14. The main chapters Milward A book ef essays, so each chapter is self-containing Chapter 2: the the post-war nation-state (basis of Milwards interpretation) Chapter 3 and 7: Coal and the Belgian nation; Britain and Western Europe Chapter 6: the lives and teaching of the European saints (Milward and the cult of providential men) Moravcsik Most important for you are the chapters where he exposes his method Introduction and chapter 1: theorizing European integration Chapter 2: the treaties of Rome Chapter 7: European integration in retrospect

    15. Diplomatic historical accounts 1980s onwards: The traditionalists Traditionalists (Gillingham, Schwabe more moderate, Hogan): take political factors and US influence for the decisive factor of European integration. SCHWABE Klaus, The United States, Western Security and European Integration (1945-1963) , in DUMOULIN Michel, DUCHENNE Genevive (dir.), L'Union europenne et les tats-Unis, Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2003. Dinan/Milward: European integration largely driven by national interests and American influence, but the decisions were taken in Europe.

    16. Recent trends neo-functionalist revisionists The role of social movements The SEA/Maastricht/enlargement/EMU boost Identities and identity politics Core and peripheral identities, elites - people, different social and political groups Nationally constructed integration narratives The process of integration as a struggle between the market and the state John Gillingham (2003) Integration and globalisation European integration and new global history Multi-level, the role of common institutions From the process to the nature of the European institutions and europeanization: political science rediscovers history