Chapter 19Foreign Policy: Setting a Course of Expansionism Was American foreign policy during the 1800’s motivated more by realism or idealism? FOREIGN POLICY = the set of goals, principles and practices that guide a nation in its relations with other countries
The Brief History of American Foreign Policy • How is Foreign Policy conducted? • The State Department (led by the Sec. of State) advises the President and carries out the details of U.S. policy • Congress debates and can vote on foreign policy issues • Treaties with other nations do not become legally binding until the Senate approves it by a two-thirds vote • “Tools of the Trade” • Diplomacy and financial aid and the threat of armed force • Realism versus Idealism • Realism: based on our self-interest • If it benefits us, it is good policy • Idealism: promote America’s founding ideals to ensure a better world for ALL not just for us • Democracy, liberty, rights
1796 and George Washington’s Farewell Address • It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. • The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is to have with them as little political connection as possible. • This is known as “isolationism” or “unilateralism” • The United States will “go it alone” • Neutrality protects us from taking sides • Great Britain vs. France in the early days • Realism (economics) vs. Idealism (principles)
Defending Neutrality in the War of 1812 • Both France and Great Britain seized ships and kidnapped Americansailors • Neither respected our neutral rights • James Madison made progress withFrance but declared war on Britain • Idealism: free trade and our rights • Realism: land (in the West and maybe even Canada) • Treaty of Ghent in 1815 ended the war • No territory was ceded or lost • It was a “tie”
Monroe Doctrine • 1820’s • Russia threatening to expand in North America • Spain and Britain were colonizing in South/Central America • 1823: The Monroe Doctrine states a policy of non-colonization and non-interference in the Western Hemisphere • The American continents are closed to future colonization by any European powers Monroe Doctrine
A History of American Expansion Through Diplomacy • 1803: T. Jefferson buys the Louisiana Territory from France for $15,000,000 (3 cents an acre) • 1819: We negotiate for Florida from Spain • 1846: Britain signs a treaty dividing the Oregon Territory at the 49th parallel • 1867: $7,200,000 for Alaska from Russia
A History of American Expansion Through War • 1821: Moses Austin establishes a “colony” in Texas which was part of Mexico at the time • The Americans and Mexican government did not get along • Americans held slaves, official documents were in Spanish • 1836 Texas declares itself an independent republic, names Sam Houston as commander in chief and revolts against Mexico • Santa Anna recognizes the Lone Star Republic • Statehood in 1845 • 1846 President Polk goes to war with Mexico over our southern border • Mexican War ends in 1848 (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) • Mexican Cession • Rio Grande as the southern border of the U.S. • Territory from Texas to California • Realists: Great new territory, secure borders • Idealists: An unjust land grab with no regard for the rights of Mexico
The Beginning of Imperialism • Empire Building • Expanding to the West beyond our borders • Across the Pacific Ocean to China and Japan • Hawaii and other islands as “coaling stations” • Protectorates = nations controlled by stronger nations • Moral not just economic empire building • Josiah Strong • Civilize and Christianize • Empire Building through a strong navy • Alfred T. Mahan • World powers need world class navies
Differing Viewpoints: Should the U.S. become an imperialist power? Henry Cabot Lodge (1895) Carl Schurz (1896) Small states are of the past and have no future. The modern movement is all toward the concentration of people and territory into great nations and large dominions. The great nations are rapidly absorbing for their future expansion and their present defense all the waste places of the earth. In its dealings with other nations, the United States should have scrupulous regard, not only for their rights, but also for their self-respect…It should seek to influence mankind, not by heavy artillery, but by good example and wise counsel. It should see its highest glory, not in battles won, but in wars prevented.
Chapter 20The Spanish-American War Why did the United States go to war against Spain in 1898 and why was the outcome significant?
Trouble in Cuba • One of only two remaining Spanish colonies • Much American investment in sugar plantations amid political instability • Two previous rebellions for independence had failed • ValerianoWeyler was sent to put down the rebellions • Created prison camps (“reconcentration camps”) • Thousands die in overcrowded, unsanitary, poorly equipped camps • Foreign Policy Realism: we must protect our investments and property • Foreign Policy Idealism: we must help the Cubans realize their noble dream of independence and freedom • President William McKinley hoped to maintain neutrality.
Imperialism, The Role of the Media and a Call to War with Spain • Newspapers • Joseph Pulitzer and the New York World versus William Hearst and the New York Journal • Yellow journalism = sensational exaggerated news stories
Causes of the Spanish-America War • The DeLome Letter • Enrique DupuyDeLome: Spanish ambassador in Washington • Describes President McKinley as “weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician.” • Outrage and indignation in the United States • “Remember The Maine!!” • February 15, 1898 the American battleship blows up • Probably not a mine, probably not sabotage…remember “yellow journalism”?
Congress Declares War! • McKinley hopes for an armistice = cessation of hostilities • Close the camps • Grant Cuba independence • Spain agrees to close the camps, will not grant independence • April 25, 1898 • Congress formally declares war on Spain • Teller Amendment • When Cuba is liberated and peace restored, the United States will “leave the government and control of the Island to its people.”
A “Splendid Little War” with Spain • First, the Philippines (their other colony) • Emilio Aguinaldo had been fighting against the Spanish there • Commodore Dewey storms Manila Bay • Aguinaldo with American reinforcements takes Manila • Then Cuba • The First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry • The Rough-Riders led by Teddy Roosevelt • After taking San Juan Hill the war went quickly • Peace on August 12 • 5500 died mostly from disease (malaria and yellow fever) • Poorly equipped, poorly supplied troops (wool uniforms in the tropical jungle!) win America’s first overseas war
America on the World Stage • Treaty of Paris 1898 • Independence to Cuba • Puerto Rico and Guam ceded to the United States • Philippines to the U.S. with a payment to Spain of $20,000,000 • Ratification Debate • Anti-Imperialist League • Imperialism violates the country’s founding principles of freedom and democracy • Supporters of the Treaty • An empire is crucial for the future success of the United States • Platt Amendment • The U.S. is allowed to intervene in Cuban affairs and to buy or lease naval bases there • By 1913, 60% of Cuba’s land was owned and controlled by American business interests
Three Presidents, Three Foreign Policies: Teddy Roosevelt • National Interests- political, economic, military, and cultural goals that a nation considers important • Roosevelt- “Speak softly and carry a big stick: you will go far” • Big Stick Policy- Roosevelt’s strong arm approach in working quietly and patiently to achieve goals overseas but using force if necessary. • Roosevelt Corollary- a proposition that is a logical extension of the Monroe Doctrine where the United States would act as international police power to preserve peace and order in the western hemisphere and protect American interest.
Three Presidents, Three Foreign Policies: Taft and Wilson • Taft continued Roosevelt’s goals and his Big Stick Policy but also started to focus on the economy • Dollar Diplomacy- to encourage and protect trade and investment in Latin American and Asia. • Woodrow Wilson tried to take a moral approach to foreign affairs. • Moral Diplomacy- democratic ideals rather than economic investment or military force. • Self-determination- the right of people of other nations to determine their own government, free of outside influence
Panama The US helped Panama overthrow Columbia in 1903 and recognized them as an independent nation. Panama Canal- The United States build a 51 mile canal which connected the Atlantic and Pacific oceans over a ten year time period. The canal opened on August 15th 1914. The Canal was an engineering feat of the time. Although recently in 1999 the US returned ownership of the canal back to panama.
Mexico Revolution in Mexico in 1911- Revolt led by Victoriano Huerta Wilson and Huerta did not get along War almost occurred in 1914 when Wilson sent troops to Veracruz, a port on the Gulf of Mexico to keep weapons from reaching Huerta’s army. A battle broke out killing 90 Americans and 300 Mexicans. A lot of people opposed Wilson’s actions and the troops were pulled out. Months later Huerta resigned and Carranza gained power.
Puerto Rico • After the Spanish American War the U.S. set up a military government, schools, and a postal service • Puerto Ricans grew frustrated with American rulebecause they were neither U.S. citizens nor Independent • Jones Act- 1917 Wilson made Puerto Rico a U.S. territory but still no rights • Puerto Rico remains a U.S. commonwealth- Puerto Rico has control over their laws and finances but decisions on defense and tariffs are in the U.S. hands
Philippines • After the Spanish American War Filipino Emilio Aguinaldo called for independence from the U.S. • February 1899, fight broke out between U.S. and Philippines and the U.S. sent hundreds of thousands of soldiers to put down the revolt. After battles the Filipino army was defeated • The U.S. set up a central government and built schools. • The U.S. controlled the Philippines until 1946.
Hawaii • Ruled by Queen Liliuokalani as a Monarchy • 1893- U.S. military forces overthrew the queen and annexed Hawaii, making it part of the United States as a territory in 1900. • Hawaii became a state in 1959, the only one that is not part of North America.
China • China was a huge nation rich in resources • Spheres of Influence- areas in which a single nation controlled trading rights, many foreign powers did this in china in the late 1890’s • Open Door Policy- a U.S. policy issued in 1899 stating that foreign nations must allow free trade in China, Issued by Sec. of State John Hay • Boxer Rebellion- 1900 a group in China led a insurrection (rising up to expel the foreign devils from China). Boxers killed thousands of foreigners including Christian Missionaries and Chinese Christians, but the U.S., Japan, and European Powers crushed the uprising. • China remained open to Trade and influence because of Hay and the Open Door Policy.