E-LEARNING EDU 5202 DEC 01, 2010 KATHY CRABBE ANGELA SLONOSKY Teaching Strategies for Health Professions Education
Agenda • Presentation (15 minutes) • Definition • Origins • Contexts • Learning Theories • Concepts • Characteristics • Opportunities and Challenges • Uses • Tools • References • Activities (30 minutes) • Activity 1: Ready? For e-learning (5 – 7 minutes) • Activity 2: Set? Tour of Learning-on-Line (LOL) (10 minutes) • Activity 3: Go! Save the Bunny (12 minutes)
Learning that is facilitated and supported via information and communications technology What is E-Learning?
Origins / History • First began in the 1960s • Military • Business • Training Sector • Higher Education
Different Contexts of E-Learning • E-Learning as distance learning • E-Learning as blended learning • E-Learning as technology integration in the classroom
Traditional Literacy Digital Literacy Information Literacy New Literacy Visual Literacy Tool Literacy Critical Literacy Media Literacy Modified from: www.slideshare.net/zvezdan/new-literacy-in-the-web-20-world
Learning Theories • Behaviourism • basic tasks • Cognitivism • tasks requiring an increased level of processing • Constructivism • learner controls accessed element • tasks requiring a higher level of processing heuristic problem solving, personal selection and monitoring of cognitive strategies • Social Constructivism • software tools indicate the way course should work • activities and texts produced shapes each person’s behaviour within that group. • Connectivism (emerging framework for e-learning) • learning as process of creating connections and developing a network • respects diversity of opinions • relationship with complexity theory (Siemens and Downes)
Concepts • Non Linear - Learners determine how, what and when they access information. • DynamicProcess - Transformed, personalized, customized on demand in response to learner and environmental variables. Available on demand and just in time. • Learner Controlled - Learners controls their own interaction with the content and presentation. Learners have opportunities for reflection and application.
Concepts • Communities of Interest - Collaborative, self selecting and organizing groups of individuals that share the same interests. • Multi ChannelLearner <-> Learner, Content <-> Learner,Expert <-> Learner, Expert <-> Content,Expert <-> Expert
Patrick Suppes ‘… in the future it would be possible for all students to have access to the service of a personal tutor in the same way that ancient royals were once served by individual tutors, but that this time the tutors would be in the form of a computer.’ (Suppes, 1966).
Distinguishing Characteristics • Learning environment options • formal, informal, independent, or any combination (VLEs or Virtual Learning Environments / PLEs or Personal Learning Environments) • Flexibility for scheduling learning activities (balance life-work-study) • independent of geographic location (scheduling depends on tools used) • Accessibility (24/7 with access via computers/mobile devices called m-learning) • to content (repeat viewing if required) • to otherwise unavailable subject matter experts • Tools responding to various learning preferences • allows multiple approaches to same content • Current Information • new sources and updated sources (individual and international scopes)
Uses for Strategies • Academic / Training Based • Course content such as readings, links to web sources • Simulation learning (low- and medium simulation) • Reflective practice (blogs, wikis) • Training and/or live support especially for rural / remote practitioners • Discussion Forums based on a case study or a video presentation • “Best Practices” videos on recent techniques by experts in the field • Participant-based or national / international workgroups on selected topics • Collaborative study and/or research writing groups • Enhanced mentoring and interprofessional education opportunities • Access to subject matter experts on non-medical aspects of client care (i.e. cultural practices)
Uses for Strategies • Non-Academic • Resources for clients (multilingual, multicultural) • Support groups for clients • Resources for non-medical professionals (e.g. family, volunteers, personal support workers) • Community-based healthcare education and health promotion for the community-at-large and non-medical healthcare providers • Create formal and informal communities of practice • Connect on differences in practices determined by location or community • Establish social and professional networks • Professional career opportunities and upcoming web-based and non-web-based learning events
Sample Tools • May be used inside or outside of a LMS (learning management system) or LCMS (learning content management system); tools bridge functionalities • Sample of tools that require little, if any, special computer skills, are usually free, allow anyone to create a learning environment, and that facilitate • An e-learning environment uses tools that “facilitate” the purpose of the learner • content created by the user / distributed by any device • Blog, Flickr, Wikispaces, podcasts, YouTube, etc. • communication • E-mail, Skype, Twitter, Discussion Forums, Wikis, etc. • social networking • Facebook, MySpace, etc. • searching and organization of data (as opposed to information) • RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds, Delicious, Diigo, Tag, etc.
Activity #1: Are you a candidate for e-learning? (5 - 7 mins) • We have signed you into the Home Page of Learning on Line (http://learning-on-line.wikispaces.com/+++++Home) • Please read our brief introduction. • On the menu at the left of the page, click on Activity #1: Ready? For e-Learning. • Complete the self-assessment. • To think about: How do you rate as an e-learner? • To think about: Does the self-assessment provide a potential e-learner with enough insight to make an informed decision?
Activity #2: Tour of Learning-on-Line (10 minutes) • Exit the assessment website and return to Learning on Line. • On the menu at the left of the page, click on Activity #2: Tour of Learning on Line. • Visit as many stops as you can on the whirlwind tour in 10 minutes. • If you have extra time, feel free to explore. Complete the activities on your handout. • To think about: Are there tools that you liked? Disliked? • To think about: What are the opportunities and challenges that you, as the e-learner, might experience?
Activity #3 Save the Bunny! (10-12 minutes) • On the menu at the left of the page, click Activity #3: Save the Bunny. • Complete the assignment. You may have to try more than once. • To think about: What skills might a potential e-learner need to develop for some web-based activities? • To think about: What would you, as an e-learner, like to see • as tools to enhance your e-learning experience?
Key Resources • Self-assessment: https://wwwacad.mtroyal.ca/onlineorientation/step1/ready.php or www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html • General resource: www.elearnspace.org/doing/methodologiestheories.htm#Adult • Tools in action: http://cc09.wikispaces.com/Presentation • Constructivism: Koohang, A., Riley, L., Smith, T. (2009). E-Learning and Constructivism: • From Theory to Application. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects Vol. 5, 91-109. Retrieved from: http://ijklo.org/Volume5/IJELLOv5p091-109Koohang655.pdf • E-learning and Adults: Gruenbaum, E. (2010). Predictors of Success for Adult Online Learners: A Review of the Literature. eLearn Magazine. Retrieved from: www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=research&article=10-1 • E-learning and Nursing: Clegg, P., Heap, J. (2006). Facing the challenge of e-learning. Innovate 2(6), n.p. Retrieved from uOttawa Library. • E-learning and Connectivism: Siemens, G. (2010). The meaning of connectivism for learning design. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bygZfbGQ-yA