Production Test Spring 2010 Write-On
Production Test • The purpose of this seminar is to present an overview of the Production Test and an introduction of how to use the Bluebook. • This session covers the format that is used in law review articles and comments. The format that practitioners use is different. • This session does not cover everything that you will need to know for the Production Test.
Production Test Details • The purpose of the Production Test is to test your ability to use the Bluebook. The types of errors that you will see in the Production Test simulate those types of errors that often occur in actual footnotes. • If, during the Write-on, you have a nonsubstantive question regarding the Production Test, we will have anonymous phone hotline hours, as will be indicated in your Write-on packet.
Production Test Details • Items that you will need: • Bluebook (Eighteenth Edition) • Red-ink Pen (preferably with a micro point) • White Out • Items that will be useful: • Post-It Notes/Tabs • Pencil • Eraser • Highlighter
Production Test Details • Items that your packet will contain: • Sources • Proofreading/Editing Marks Sheet • Instructions • Production Test (2 copies) • Write neatly! You will receive no credit for a mark that is illegible. Use the spaces between the lines to mark your corrections. If you do not have space between the lines, draw an arrow to the margin and mark your correction in the margin.
Production Test Details • The Production Test will ask you to: • Cite to sources according to proper Bluebook form • Verify quotations and page numbers • Verify the article’s author and title • Check that sources support the author’s claim • Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation
The Bluebook • The purpose of the Bluebook is to help a reader identify sources in citations, and to help an author avoid occupying his whole article with citations. • The Bluebook is a reference book; it is not an instructional manual. • You will not be alone if and when you feel frustrated during the Production Test.
Helpful Suggestions • Use the index. If you cannot find an entry under a particular word, look up a synonymous or related word. • For example, if you cannot find an entry for “updates” or “bulletins,” look up “newsletters.” • For everything in the Production Test, look up an applicable rule in the Bluebook. • If you scrutinize everything in a citation- general format, typeface, capitalization, etc.- and always look up the relevant rules, then you are more likely to catch all the errors in that citation.
Helpful Suggestions • Read through each section. • This is actually the best way for you to familiarize yourself with the contents and structure of the Bluebook. • Keep track of the different requirements of each rule. • Flag/Tab the beginning of major sections. • For example, page 129 begins the section on books, and page 138 begins the section on law reviews, newspapers, and magazines.
How to Approach a Citation • Identify the type of source and look up the applicable rule. • Major sources include cases, books, law reviews, magazines, newspapers, websites, and legislative materials. • Look through the rule to make sure that you provide all of the necessary information. • For example, use “&” for books with two authors; use “et al.” for books with more than two authors; identify editors or translators when necessary; abbreviate according to the tables in the back of the Bluebook when necessary.
How to Approach a Citation • Check if any of the rules from Rule 1 to Rule 18 apply to the citation. • Rule 1: Are signals used correctly? • Rule 2: Is the correct typeface used? • Rule 3: Are pages and footnotes cited to correctly? • Rule 4: Are id. and supra signals used correctly? • Rule 5: Are quotations formatted correctly? • Check if any of the rules from Rule 1 to Rule 18 apply to the footnote as a whole. • Rule 1.4: Order of authorities within each signal
Final Helpful Suggestions • Read through the Bluebook and tab it. • If you are not certain about how to cite to a particular source, look through the examples in the Bluebook. • For a quick reference of how to cite to sources according to proper Bluebook form, look at the inside front cover of the Bluebook.
Sample Footnote Rules Implicated: Block quotes: 5.1 Signal: 1.2 Cases: 10 Typeface: 2.2(b)(i) Proper Reporter: T.1 Subdivisions: 3.2
Sample Footnote Rules Implicated: Signals: 1.2(e) Periodical: 16 Author of Periodical: 16.1,15.1 Capitalization: 16.2, 8(a) Abbreviation: T13 Typeface: 2.2
Sample Footnote Rules Implicated: Signal: 1.2 Reporter: T.1 Court Parenthetical: 10.4 • Subsequent history: 10.7 Explanatory phrases: T.8 Parenthetical: 1.5(a)(i) Capitalization: 8 • Short form: 10.9(a)
Sample Footnote Rules Implicated: Periodicals: 16 Typeface: 16.2 , 2.2(a) Abbreviation: T13 Signal: 1.3 Electronic sources: 18.2.3