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Disease as a failure of homeostasis

Disease as a failure of homeostasis

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Disease as a failure of homeostasis

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  1. Disease as a failure of homeostasis Disease Basics

  2. Immune System: The Video Clip

  3. Disease: What is it? • Disease: • Any condition that prevents the body from working as it should • Can be due to ANY of the following: • Pathogens: a disease causing agent • Bacteria and Fungi (living) • Viruses (non living) • Toxins: a chemical substance that causes harm by disrupting bodily functions • Carbon Monoxide, Asbestos exposure • Inherited: Due to a defective gene • Hemophilia, Cystic Fibrosis

  4. Bacteria and viruses - What is the difference?The Video Clip (3:19)

  5. Disease: How are they spread? • AIR BORNE: • COUGHING, SNEEZING, ETC • VECTORS: • ANIMALS THAT CARRY DISEASES AND SPREAD THEM • MOSQUITOES = MALARIA, WEST NILE VIRUS • TICKS = LYME DISEASE • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED: • SPREAD BY SEXUAL CONTACT • HIV, AIDS, HERPES, ETC.

  6. Infectious Disease: The Video Clip

  7. Fighting it • ANTIBIOTICS: • KILL BACTERIA WITHOUT HARMING THE CELLS OF ANIMALS • EXAMPLE IS PENICILLIN • WORKS ONLY ON BACTERIA!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • ANTIVIRALS • PREVENT VIRUSES FROM INVADING CELLS AND THEN MULTIPLYING • EXAMPLE IS TAMIFLU • IMMUNE RESPONSE • NON-SPECIFIC • SPECIFIC • ACTIVE IMMUNITY

  8. Antibiotics: Video Clip

  9. SC LE Seatwork-use your review book Topic 2 1.Write/highlight the vocab terms found on page 20 of your Review book 2. Make Vocab Flashcards AIDS ALLERGY ANTIBODIES ANTIGEN BACTERIA DISEASE DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM FUNGI FEEDBACK MECHANISM MICROBE HOMEOSTASIS VIRUS IMMUNE SYSTEM PARASITE PATHOGEN VACCINE 3. Open your review book to page 33. Read and complete BOTH sides of the worksheet. 4. What doesn’t get finished in class is HOMEWORK AND IS DUE Monday. word definition 16

  10. Regents LE Seatwork-use your review book Topic 2 1.Write/highlight the vocab terms found on page 20 of your Review book 2. Make Vocab Flashcards AIDS ALLERGY ANTIBODIES ANTIGEN BACTERIA DISEASE DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM FUNGI FEEDBACK MECHANISM MICROBE HOMEOSTASIS VIRUS IMMUNE SYSTEM PARASITE PATHOGEN VACCINE 3. Read pages 33-36 and complete the guided reading packet. 4. What doesn’t get finished in class is HOMEWORK AND IS DUE Monday. word definition 16

  11. Immunity & The Immune System

  12. IMMUNITY • The bodies ability to fight infection

  13. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM • The immune system is localized in several parts of the body • immune cells develop in the primary organs -bone marrow and thymus (yellow) • immune responses occur in the secondary organs (blue)

  14. Immune System • The system in the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis by recognizingharmful from safe organisms and produces an appropriate response • Parts of the Immune System • Blood - White Blood Cells in particular. • Lymph nodes • Thymus Gland – Produces T Lymphocytes • Bone Marrow – Produces B Lymphocytes

  15. Skin: The Video Clip

  16. A. Immunity: Non-specific defenses How does the body fight infection/foreign invaders? • FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE: • SKIN - MOST IMPORTANT • PATHOGENS CANNOT PENETRATE • WHEN BROKEN, OPENS BODY TO INFECTION • MUCUS • TRAP BACTERIA IN NOSE AND MOUTH • DIGESTIVE STUFF • ACID AND ENZYMES CAN DESTROY PATHOGENS

  17. 1st Line of Defense

  18. 2. SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE (INFLAMMATION) • BLOOD VESSELS AROUND WOUND SWELL AND RELEASE WBC’S (PHAGOCYTES) • REMEMBER PHAGOCYTOSIS? – SURROUND AND ENGULF!! • FEVERS ARE ALSO PART OF THIS RESPONSE

  19. The Inflammatory Response 2nd Line of Defense Section 40-2 Wound Skin Phagocytes move into the area and engulf the bacteria and cell debris Bacteria enter the wound Capillary VIDEO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suCKm97yvyk (4:06)

  20. B. Immunity: Specific Defense (3rd line) • RESPONSE TRIGGERED BY AN ANTIGEN: • ORGANIC MATERIALS ON SURFACE OF PATHOGENS THAT BODY DOES NOT RECOGNIZE • 3 Types of Specific Defense: • Humoral Immunity • Cell Mediated Immunity • Permanent Immunity

  21. 1. Humoral Immunity • OCCURS IN BODY LIQUIDS (LYMPH AND BLOOD) • B LYMPHOCYTES (B CELLS)(WBC’S) • PRODUCE ANTIBODIES IN RESPONSE TO ANTIGENS • ANTIBODIES ARE SPECIFIC TO ANTIGEN • Y SHAPED protein • FUNCTION: CLUMPS ANTIGENS (BAD GUYS) TOGETHER SO CAN BE DESTROYED BY PHAGOCYTE Antigen-binding sites Antigen Antibody

  22. T LYMPHOCYTES (HELPER T CELLS) (WBC’S) • AID B CELLS IN MAKING PLASMA CELLS

  23.  Humoral Immunity Section 40-2 Bacterial antigens also stimulate B cells Bacteria With Antigens on Surface B cell Helper T cell assists the activated B cell to develop into an antibody-producing plasma cell Active B cells proliferate to produce clones of memory cells A large phagocyte called a macrophage engulfs a bacterium Plasma cell produces large amounts of antibody proteins, released intothe bloodstream T cell binds to activated macrophage T cell, activated by macrophage, becomes a helper T cell T cell Macrophage Antigens are displayed on surface of macrophage after digestion of bacterium Circulating antibodies bind to bacterial antigens, helping other immune cells to identify and destroy bacteria

  24. 2. Cell-Mediated Immunity • KILLER T CELLS“KILL” SINGLE PATHOGEN CELLS • MAINLY FOR EUKARYOTIC INFECTIONS • PROTISTS AND FUNGI • MAKES BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTS COMPLICATED • DOCTOR LOOKS FOR CLOSEST MATCH • PATIENT MAY BE ON IMMUNOSUPPRESSORS FOR REST OF LIFE • WHY IS THIS DANGEROUS? • Person will be susceptible to many infections due to a compromised immune system

  25. Cell-MediatedImmune Response Section 40-2 Helper T cell activates killer T cells and B cells Macrophage T cell binds to activated macrophage Killer T Cell Helper T Cell T Cell T cell, activated by macrophage, becomes a helper T cell Antigens are displayed on surface of macrophage Infected Cell Killer T cells bind to infected cells, disrupting their cell membranes and destroying them

  26. 3. Permanent Immunity • ONCE YOU GET IT, YOU CAN’T GET IT AGAIN • DUE TO MEMORY B AND MEMORY T CELLS • WILL CONTINUE TO PRODUCE SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES

  27. How types of immunity produce memory cells

  28. C. Active Immunity • EDWARD JENNER FIRST TESTED ACTIVE PERMANENT IMMUNITY • Vaccine • WEAKENED OR MILD FORM OF A PATHOGEN THAT IS INJECTED TO PRODUCE AN IMMUNE RESPONSE • BODY WILL THEN RECOGNIZE ANTIGEN WHEN INTRODUCED TO FULL BLOWN PATHOGEN • BODY WILL RESPOND VERY QUICKLY TO DESTROY PATHOGEN

  29. Vaccine Process BRAIN POP – 3:39 MIN http://www.brainpop.com/health/diseasesinjuriesandconditions/vaccines/

  30. Vaccination: The Video Clip

  31. 1914 – 1995 Jonas Salk • Developed first vaccine against polio • The virus multiplies in the intestine and invades the nervous system. It can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. • One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis. Among those paralyzed, 5-10 percent die when their breathing muscles are immobilized. • Polio mainly affects children under age 5. April 12, 1955

  32. Immune System Disorders

  33. Allergies: The Video Clip

  34. 1. Allergies • IS AN OVERREACTION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM • OCCURS WHEN ANTIGENS FROM ALLERGENS (POLLEN, PET DANDER, ETC) ATTACH TO MAST CELLS • THIS IN TURN TRIGGERS HISTAMINES • THESE PRODUCE SNEEZING, RUNNY NOSE AND EYES ETC….

  35. How an allergy is triggered…

  36. Autoimmune Disease: The video clip

  37. 2. Autoimmune Disorders • WHEN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM MAKES A MISTAKE AND ATTACKS ITS’ OWN BODY CELLS • EXAMPLES OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES • JUVENILE DIABETES (Type 1) • MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)

  38. AIDS • ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME • WHAT CAUSES AIDS? • CAUSED BY THEHIV VIRUS (Human Immunodificiency Virus) • HIVINFECTS HELPER T-CELLS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM ANDDESTROYS THEM • PERSON CAN BE INFECTED W/ HIV FOR YEARS AND NOT KNOW IT • WHEN T-CELL COUNT IS LOW ENOUGH, FULL-BLOWN AIDS IS DECLARED

  39. HIV: The Video Clip (2:37) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rv0yIICeg-E

  40. AIDS: How is it contracted? • SHARING INFECTED NEEDLES • BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS • UNPROTECTED SEX Effects of Disease • AIDS PATIENT MORE SUSECPTIBLE TO OTHER DISEASES B/C IMMUNE SYSTEM DAMAGED • PERSON DIES OF “AIDS RELATED SUCH-IN-SUCH” • EXAMPLE: AIDS RELATED OR INDUCED PNEUMONIA

  41. Brain Pop: Viruseshttp://www.brainpop.com/health/diseasesinjuriesandconditions/viruses/

  42. Cancer Cells out of control

  43. Cellular Disease • Begins when something goes wrong with normal cell divisionand/or growth • Tumor: • Mass of growing tissue that results from cellsdividing and growing uncontrollably • Benign: Non-cancerous tumor • Malignant: Cancerous tumors that often spread to other tissues (call metastasis)

  44. Cancer: The Causes • Viral Cancers: • Some virusesmay inject genes that interrupt normal cell cycles • Radiation: • Produce mutations in DNA causing interruption of normal cell cycles • Sunlight (UV), x-rays, nuclear • Chemicals: • Also may cause mutations in DNA causing interruption of normal cell cycles • Called CARCINOGENS

  45. Cancer: The Treatments • PREVENTION: • Don’t smoke! • Wear sunscreen (at least 15 SPF) • Eat right and exercise! • SURGERY: tumor removal • RADIATION: tumor shrinkage • CHEMOTHERAPY: (chemical) tumor shrinkage • Very uncomfortable • Patients lose hair • Drugs damage healthy cells too

  46. Cancer video • Let’s watch: http://www.brainpop.com/health/diseasesinjuriesandconditions/cancer/ • Complete video quiz