Egyptian Afterlife and Culture By Ryan Wagner Period: 1-9 12/5/07
Egyptian Presentation Outline • Spirituality • Ma’at • 5 Parts of a person • Afterlife • Can be attained • Extra special for pharaoh • Need Mummification • Mummification • History • Vocabulary • Why? • Religion -Polytheism http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/home.html -Brief overview of pantheon
Spirituality Are you contributing to Ma’at? • Ma’at = is both a goddess and an “order” The word means order in the universe, without which all things would be destroyed. Job of pharaoh is to uphold this balance by being just and upholding laws.
Ma’at • All gods deferred to her • Every time something was judged “Ma’at was there” • Her feather was used in the “Weighing of the Heart”
Spirituality • Egyptians believed that the Soul was split into five parts • Ka • Ba • Ib • Ren • Shewt
Ib • Heart • Thought to be more important than brain (emotion, thought, feeling run through it) • Key to afterlife • Weighed against feather of Maat • If heavier then heart fed to Ammit and body fed to Seth the evil god of Underworld
Ka • Life force • Made by Creator God Khnum on his pottery wheel • Represented by touchdown arms in hieroglyphics • What left the body when you died • Your twin with touchdown arms on your head • Must be maintained with food and drink • Make offerings and the spirit of the food and drink will be consumed by ka
Ba • Soul/personality • Human headed bird flying out of the pyramid to join with the Ka • What makes someone unique • Must journey from the tomb every day and find the ka • Must return to body at night in the tomb
Ren • Name • Written and spoken • Must not be lost • Attached to individual from birth • Wrote it all over walls, monuments, statues so spirit could find physical body
Shewt • Shadow – small human figure painted completely black • An entity with great power and capable of great speed • Must be protected • Pharaoh paintings often seen in shade or under palm leaf or fan
Akh • Hieroglyph – crested ibis • Fully resurrected spirit • Able to leave tomb and make good and bad things happen in everyday life • Can go to “heaven” = Land of Reeds
Afterlife • At first only possible for Pharaoh • Later same practices adopted for all classes • Priests perform ceremonies and write spells for protection both in temple and on sarcophagus
Afterlife • “opening of the mouth ceremony” – performed by priest to restore physical abilities in death, and separate the ba from its attachment to the body • Egyptians believe afterlife is similar to the God of the Dead, Osiris
Afterlife • He does this each day and while in the Underworld he has to fight a giant monster sent by his enemy Seth. • Similar to that story, the ba must rise each day and look for the ka, and then the ba must return to the body each day and protect it
Mummification • Why? • History – used to bury dead in sand but decayed • Used to wrap and bury in sand but decayed • Wrapped Pharaoh for two reasons • He was Osiris in the flesh • He would need to be physically recognizable by any parts of his spirit • Ba to return each night to protect • Ka to return to in order to receive food, drink, offerings, etc.
Mummification • Hery seshta – takes role of Anubis and is in charge of mummification, might even wear mask • Hery heb – reads spells during each part • Wetyw – do all the removals, bandaging, ointments, etc.
Mummificaiton • Body taken two places • Place of purification – washed using natron salts, palm wine, and nile water • Place of beauty – mummification takes place **All materials used in the process are buried along with the body!
Mummification Procedures • Internal (soft and wet) organs removed, dried, wrapped, placed into canopic jars • Sometimes removed brain by chiseling through nasal cavity and using hooked device to pull out pieces at a time • Jars have heads of four sons of Horus = Hapy - lungs, Imsety - Liver, Duamutef - stomach, and Qebehsenuef - intestines
Procedures Continued • Liver, lungs, stomach, intestines – later Egypt dehydrated and wrapped in linen – then stuffed back in to body! • Body stuffed with things like leaves, saw dust, and linen to maek it appear life-like • Body rubbed in natron and in some instances stuffed with it – must dry it out – Embalming • Left for forty days to dry
Procedures Continued • Temporary stuffing removed • Body cavity re-stuffed and packed out with clean bags of natron, resin soaked bandages, and lots of perfumes and ointments.
Procedures Continued • Whole body coated in resin/oils to keep skin elastic • Sometimes cosmetics added to make more life-like
Procedures Continued • 7. Body completely bandaged up – linen – start at head, do each limb and torso separately • Priest reads scripts during wrapping • 8. Amulets and valuables placed in appropriate places between bandages according to Book of the Dead (Spell encyclopedia) – protection and good luck and balance
Procedures Continued • Arms and legs tied together and scroll with protective spells from Book of Dead placed in hands • Bandaging would take around 15 days – add a couple of layers and resins each day
Procedures Continued • Cloth wrapped around body and picture of god Osiris is drawn on • Large colored cloth is placed around body and made snug by horizontal and diagonal colored linen strips
Funerary mask/Death mask placed on head to symbolize going into another state of existence – see King Tut
Procedures Continued • Total process took around 70 days • Family mourns – Opening of the Mouth Ceremony performed – first food and drink offering • Placed into two wooden coffins • Placed into Stone Sarcophagus with offerings and valuables to use in afterlife
Gods and Goddesseshttp://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/story/main.html • Everything started out with Nun, the waters of Chaos. • The first thing to rise out of the waters was Ben-Ben, a mound of earth • Atum, the first of the gods, appeared on Ben-Ben • He spat out Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture)
Gods and Goddesses • These two children had two chidren of their own: Nut, goddess of the sky, and Geb, god of the earth • They had four children – Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Seth
Gods and Goddesses • Osiris and Isis became partners and so did Seth and Nephthys • Osiris became king of the earth; Seth got jealous, he ended up killing Osiris once, and then a second time. Both times Isis brought Osirius back to life with the help of magic and the jackal head god Anubis.
Gods and Goddesses • Isis was able to bring Osiris back to life in a way again, but he was now god of the Underworld • His son, Horus, avenged his father by defeating Seth • Seth became evil god of the netherworld/hell, Horus was god of the Earth and Living, and Osiris was god of the Dead and Underworld
Gods and Goddesses • The Pharaoh is Horus during life and Osiris at death • The dead pharaoh must make the journey to the underworld with the sun at night, and fight Seth and his minions • By day the dead pharaoh rises with the sun
Bibliography • http://touregypt.net/godsofegypt/maat.htm 12/4/07. • http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/home.html 12/4/07. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_soul 12/4/07 • http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ka.htm 12/4/07 • http://library.thinkquest.org/J002037F/ba_and_ka.htm • http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/egypt_soul.html • http://www.neferchichi.com/mummies.html