Download
string n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
String PowerPoint Presentation

String

6 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

String

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. String

  2. Char Methods • For the char value type, there is a Char class • Most methods are static • IsLetter • IsDigit • IsLetterOrDigit • IsLower • IsUpper • ToUpper • ToLower • IsPunctuation • IsSymbol • IsWhiteSpace

  3. 31 // handle analyzeButton_Click 32 privatevoid analyzeButton_Click( 33 object sender, System.EventArgs e ) 34 { 35 char character = Convert.ToChar( inputTextBox.Text ); 36 BuildOutput( character ); 37 } 38 39 // display character information in outputTextBox 40 privatevoid BuildOutput( char inputCharacter ) 41 { 42 string output; 43 44 output = "is digit: " + 45 Char.IsDigit( inputCharacter ) + "\r\n"; 46 47 output += "is letter: " + 48 Char.IsLetter( inputCharacter ) + "\r\n"; 49 50 output += "is letter or digit: " + 51 Char.IsLetterOrDigit( inputCharacter ) + "\r\n"; 52 53 output += "is lower case: " + 54 Char.IsLower( inputCharacter ) + "\r\n"; 55 56 output += "is upper case: " + 57 Char.IsUpper( inputCharacter ) + "\r\n"; 58 59 output += "to upper case: " + 60 Char.ToUpper( inputCharacter ) + "\r\n"; 61 62 output += "to lower case: " + 63 Char.ToLower( inputCharacter ) + "\r\n"; 64 CharMethods.cs

  4. StringConstructor.cs using System; using System.Windows.Forms; class StringConstructor { static void Main( string[] args ) { string output; string originalString, string1, string2, string3, string4; char[] characterArray = {'b', 'i', 'r', 't', 'h', ' ', 'd', 'a', 'y' }; originalString = "Welcome to C# programming!"; string1 = originalString; string2 = new string( characterArray ); string3 = new string( characterArray, 6, 3 ); string4 = new string( 'C', 5 ); output = "string1 = " + "\"" + string1 + "\"\n" + "string2 = " + "\"" + string2 + "\"\n" + "string3 = " + "\"" + string3 + "\"\n" + "string4 = " + "\"" + string4 + "\"\n";

  5. String Indexer, Length Property and CopyTo Method • String indexer • Retrieval of any character in the string • Length property • Returns the length of the string • CopyTo • Copies specified number of characters into a char array

  6. StringMethods.cs using System; using System.Windows.Forms; class StringMethods { staticvoid Main( string[] args ) { string string1, output; char[] characterArray; string1 = "hello there"; characterArray = newchar[ 5 ]; output = "string1: \"" + string1 + "\""; output += "\nLength of string1: " + string1.Length; output += "\nThe string reversed is: "; for ( int i = string1.Length - 1; i >= 0; i-- ) output += string1[ i ];

  7. Comparing Strings • String comparison • Greater than • Less than • Method Equals • Test objects for equality • Return a Boolean • Uses lexicographical comparison

  8. StringCompare.cs using System; using System.Windows.Forms; class StringCompare { staticvoid Main( string[] args ) { string string1 = "hello"; string string2 = "good bye"; string string3 = "Happy Birthday"; string string4 = "happy birthday"; string output; // output values of four strings output = "string1 = \"" + string1 + "\"" + "\nstring2 = \"" + string2 + "\"" + "\nstring3 = \"" + string3 + "\"" + "\nstring4 = \"" + string4 + "\"\n\n"; // test for equality using Equals method if ( string1.Equals( "hello" ) ) output += "string1 equals \"hello\"\n"; else output += "string1 does not equal \"hello\"\n"; // test for equality with == if ( string1 == "hello" ) output += "string1 equals \"hello\"\n";

  9. StringStartEnd.cs using System; using System.Windows.Forms; class StringStartEnd { staticvoid Main( string[] args ) { string[] strings = { "started", "starting", "ended", "ending" }; string output = ""; for ( int i = 0; i < strings.Length; i++ ) if ( strings[ i ].StartsWith( "st" ) ) output += "\"" + strings[ i ] + "\"" + " starts with \"st\"\n"; output += "\n"; // test every string to see if it ends with "ed“ for ( int i = 0; i < strings.Length; i ++ ) if ( strings[ i ].EndsWith( "ed" ) ) output += "\"" + strings[ i ] + "\"" + " ends with \"ed\"\n";

  10. Miscellaneous String Methods • Method Replace • Original string remain unchanged • Original string return if no occurrence matched • Method ToUpper • Replace lower case letter • Original string remain unchanged • Original string return if no occurrence matched • Method ToLower • Replace lower case letter • Original string remain unchanged • Original string return if no occurrence matched

  11. More String Methods • Method Trim • removes whitespaces at the beginning and end • original string is changed • Method Replace • Change all occurrences of one char or string with another one • original string remains unchanged

  12. StringMiscellaneous2.cs using System; using System.Windows.Forms; class StringMethods2 { staticvoid Main( string[] args ) { string string1 = "cheers!"; string string2 = "GOOD BYE "; string string3 = " spaces "; string output; output = "string1 = \"" + string1 + "\"\n" + "string2 = \"" + string2 + "\"\n" + "string3 = \"" + string3 + "\""; // call method Replace output += "\n\nReplacing \"e\" with \"E\" in string1: \"" + string1.Replace( 'e', 'E' ) + "\""; // call ToLower and ToUpper output += "\n\nstring1.ToUpper() = \"" + string1.ToUpper() + "\"\nstring2.ToLower() = \"" + string2.ToLower() + "\"";

  13. You have been provided with the following class that implements a phone number directory: public class PhoneBook { public boolean insert(String phoneNum, String name) { ... } public String getPhoneNumber(String name) { ... } public String getName(String phoneNum) { ... } // other private fields and methods } • PhoneBook does not accept phone numbers that begin with "0" or "1", that do not have exactly 10 digits. It does not allow duplicate phone numbers. insert() returns true on a successful phone number insertion, false otherwise. getPhoneNumber() and getName() return null if they cannot find the desired entry in the PhoneBook. • Design and implement a subclass of PhoneBook called YellowPages (including all of the necessary fields and methods) that supports the following additional operations. • Retrieve the total number of phone numbers stored in the directory. • Retrieve the percentage of phone numbers stored in the directory that are "810" numbers (that have area code "810").

  14. What will happen when you attempt to compile and run this code? class Base{abstract public void myfunc();public void another(){console.writeline("Another method");}}public class Abs : Base{public static void main(String argv[]){Abs a = new Abs();a.amethod();}public void myfunc(){ console.writeline("My func");} public void amethod(){myfunc();}}

  15. Derived-Class-Object to Base-Class-Object Conversion • Class hierarchies • Can assign derived-class objects to base-class references • Can explicitly cast between types in a class hierarchy • An object of a derived-class can be treated as an object of its base-class • Array of base-class references that refer to objects of many derived-class types • Base-class object is NOT an object of any of its derived classes

  16. Working with Override Methods • You can only override identical inherited virtual methods • You must match an override method with its associated virtual method • You can override an override method • You cannot explicitly declare an override method as virtual • You cannot declare an override method as static or private class Token { ... public int LineNumber( ) { ... } public virtual string Name( ) { ... } } class CommentToken: Token { ... public override int LineNumber( ) { ... } public override string Name( ) { ... } } û 

  17. Working with the new Keyword • Hide both virtual and non-virtual methods • Resolve name clashes in code • Hide methods that have identical signatures class Token { ... public int LineNumber( ) { ... } public virtual string Name( ) { ... } } class CommentToken: Token { ... new public int LineNumber( ) { ... } public override string Name( ) { ... } }

  18. using System; // Point class definition implicitly inherits from Object public class Point { // point coordinate private int x, y; // default constructor public Point() { // implicit call to Object constructor occurs here } public Point( int xValue, int yValue ) { // implicit call to Object constructor occurs here X = xValue; Y = yValue; } public int X { get { return x; }

  19. set { x = value; // no need for validation } } // end property X // property Y public int Y { get { return y; } set { y = value; // no need for validation } } // end property Y // return string representation of Point public override string ToString() { return "[" + X + ", " + Y + "]"; } } // end class Point

  20. using System; // Circle class definition inherits from Point public class Circle : Point { private double radius; // circle's radius // default constructor public Circle() { // implicit call to Point constructor occurs here } public Circle( int xValue, int yValue, double radiusValue ) : base( xValue, yValue ) { Radius = radiusValue; } // property Radius public double Radius { get { return radius; }

  21. set { if ( value >= 0 ) // validate radius radius = value; } } // end property Radius public double Diameter() { return Radius * 2; } public double Circumference() { return Math.PI * Diameter(); } public virtual double Area() { return Math.PI * Math.Pow( Radius, 2 ); } public override string ToString() { return "Center = " + base.ToString() + "; Radius = " + Radius; } } // end class Circle

  22. using System; using System.Windows.Forms; class PointCircleTest { // main entry point for application. static void Main( string[] args ) { Point point1 = new Point( 30, 50 ); Circle circle1 = new Circle( 120, 89, 2.7 ); string output = "Point point1: " + point1.ToString() + "\nCircle circle1: " + circle1.ToString(); // use 'is a' relationship to assign // Circle circle1 to Point reference Point point2 = circle1; output += "\n\nCCircle circle1 (via point2): " + point2.ToString(); // downcast (cast base-class reference to derived-class // data type) point2 to Circle circle2 Circle circle2 = ( Circle ) point2; output += "\n\nCircle circle1 (via circle2): " + circle2.ToString(); output += "\nArea of circle1 (via circle2): " + circle2.Area().ToString( "F" );

  23. // attempt to assign point1 object to Circle reference if ( point1 is Circle ) { circle2 = ( Circle ) point1; output += "\n\ncast successful"; } else { output += "\n\npoint1 does not refer to a Circle"; } MessageBox.Show( output, "Demonstrating the 'is a' relationship" ); } // end method Main } // end class PointCircleTest

  24. Benefits of polymorphism • A method declaring in its argument list a super class data type can receive an object of any of its subclasses. public class EmployeeMain { public static void printInfo(Employeeempl) { Console.writeLine("salary = " + empl.getSalary()); Console.writeLine("days = " + empl.getVacationDays()); Console.writeLine(); } public static void main(String[] args) { Lawyerlisa = new Lawyer(); Secretarysteve = new Secretary(); printInfo(lisa); printInfo(steve); } } polymorphism With polymorphism, it is possible to design and implement systems that are more easily extensible. Programs can be written to process even objects of types that do not exist when the program is under development.

  25. Benefits of Abstract methods and Polymorphism abstract class A{ public abstract void m(); } public class Test{ public static void m2(A a1){ a1.m(); } public static void main (String [] arg){ C c1=new C(); m2(c1); } } class B : A { public void m(){ Console.writeLine("Hello from class B");} } class C : A { public void m(){ Console.writeLine("Hello from class C"); } }

  26. Benefits of polymorphism • You can declare arrays of superclass types, and store objects of any subtype as elements. Example public class Test { public static void Main(String[] args) { Employee[] employees = {new Lawyer(), new Secretary(), new Marketer(), new LegalSecretary()}; for (int i = 0; i < employees.length; i++) { Console.writeLine("salary = " +employees[i].getSalary()); • Console.writeLine("vacation days="+employees[i].getVacationDays()); Console.writeLine(); } } }

  27. Interfaces • Interfaces specify the public services (methods and properties) that classes must implement • Interfaces provide no default implementations vs. abstract classes which may provide some default implementations • Interfaces are used to “bring together” or relate disparate objects that relate to one another only through the interface

  28. Interfaces • Interfaces are defined using keyword interface • Use inheritance notation to specify a class implements an interface (ClassName : InterfaceName) • Classes may implement more than one interface (a comma separated list of interfaces) • Classes that implement an interface, must provide implementations for every method and property in the interface definition

  29. Interfaces Example public interface IDelete { void Delete(); } public class TextBox : IDelete { public void Delete() { ... } } public class Car : IDelete { public void Delete() { ... } } TextBox tb = new TextBox(); tb.Delete(); Car c = new Car(); iDel = c; iDel.Delete();

  30. Declaring Interfaces • Syntax: Use the interface keyword to declare methods Interface names should begin with a capital “I” interface IToken { int LineNumber( ); string Name( ); } IToken « interface » LineNumber( ) Name( ) No access specifiers No method bodies

  31. Implementing Multiple Interfaces • A class can implement zero or more interfaces • An interface can extend zero or more interfaces • A class can be more accessible than its base interfaces • An interface cannot be more accessible than its base interfaces • A class must implement all inherited interface methods interface IToken { string Name( ); } interface IVisitable { void Accept(IVisitor v); } class Token: IToken, IVisitable { ... } IToken « interface » IVisitable « interface » Token « concrete »

  32. Comparing Abstract Classes to Interfaces • Similarities • Neither can be instantiated • Neither can be sealed • Differences • Interfaces cannot contain any implementation • Interfaces cannot declare non-public members • Interfaces cannot extend non-interfaces

  33. public interface Ishape { // classes that implement IShape must implement these methods // and this property double Area(); double Volume(); string Name { get; } }

  34. // an x-y coordinate pair. using System; public class Point3 : Ishape { private int x, y; // Point3 coordinates public Point3(){ } // constructor public Point3( int xValue, int yValue ) { X = xValue; Y = yValue; } // property X public int X { get { return x; }

  35. 32 set 33 { 34 x = value; 35 } 36 } 37 39 public int Y 40 { 41 get 42 { 43 return y; 44 } 45 46 set 47 { 48 y = value; 49 } 50 } 51 52 // return string representation of Point3 object 53 public override string ToString() 54 { 55 return "[" + X + ", " + Y + "]"; 56 } 57 58 // implement interface IShape method Area 59 public virtual double Area() 60 { 61 return 0; 62 } 63

  36. Implementation of IShape property Name (required), declared virtual to allow deriving classes to override 64 // implement interface IShape method Volume 65 public virtual double Volume() 66 { 67 return 0; 68 } 69 70 // implement property Name of IShape 71 public virtual string Name 72 { 73 get 74 { 75 return "Point3"; 76 } 77 } 78 79 } // end class Point3

  37. 3 using System; 4 5 // Circle3 inherits from class Point3 6 public class Circle3 : Point3 7 { 8 private double radius; // Circle3 radius 9 10 // default constructor 11 public Circle3() 12 { 13 // implicit call to Point3 constructor occurs here 14 } 15 16 // constructor 17 public Circle3( int xValue, int yValue, double radiusValue ) 18 : base( xValue, yValue ) 19 { 20 Radius = radiusValue; 21 } 22 23 // property Radius 24 public double Radius 25 { 26 get 27 { 28 return radius; 29 } 30

  38. 31 set 32 { 33 // ensure non-negative Radius value 34 if ( value >= 0 ) 35 radius = value; 36 } 37 } 38 40 public double Diameter() 41 { 42 return Radius * 2; 43 } 44 45 // calculate Circle3 circumference 46 public double Circumference() 47 { 48 return Math.PI * Diameter(); 49 } 50 51 // calculate Circle3 area 52 public override double Area() 53 { 54 return Math.PI * Math.Pow( Radius, 2 ); 55 } 56 57 // return string representation of Circle3 object 58 public override string ToString() 59 { 60 return "Center = " + base.ToString() + 61 "; Radius = " + Radius; 62 } 63

  39. 64 // override property Name from class Point3 65 public override string Name 66 { 67 get 68 { 69 return "Circle3"; 70 } 71 } 72 73 } // end class Circle3

  40. 3 using System; 5 // Cylinder3 inherits from class Circle3 6 public class Cylinder3 : Circle3 7 { 8 private double height; // Cylinder3 height 9 10 // default constructor 11 public Cylinder3() 12 { 13 // implicit call to Circle3 constructor occurs here 14 } 15 16 // constructor 17 public Cylinder3( int xValue, int yValue, double radiusValue, 18 double heightValue ) : base( xValue, yValue, radiusValue ) 19 { 20 Height = heightValue; 21 } 22 23 // property Height 24 public double Height 25 { 26 get 27 { 28 return height; 29 } 30

  41. 31 set 32 { 33 // ensure non-negative Height value 34 if ( value >= 0 ) 35 height = value; 36 } 37 } 38 39 // calculate Cylinder3 area 40 public override double Area() 41 { 42 return 2 * base.Area() + base.Circumference() * Height; 43 } 44 45 // calculate Cylinder3 volume 46 public override double Volume() 47 { 48 return base.Area() * Height; 49 } 50 51 // return string representation of Cylinder3 object 52 public override string ToString() 53 { 54 return "Center = " + base.ToString() + 55 "; Height = " + Height; 56 } 57

  42. 58 // override property Name from class Circle3 59 public override string Name 60 { 61 get 62 { 63 return "Cylinder3"; 64 } 65 } 66 67 } // end class Cylinder3

  43. 5 using System.Windows.Forms; 6 7 public class Interfaces2Test 8 { 9 public static void Main( string[] args ) 10 { 11 // instantiate Point3, Circle3 and Cylinder3 objects 12 Point3 point = new Point3( 7, 11 ); 13 Circle3 circle = new Circle3( 22, 8, 3.5 ); 14 Cylinder3 cylinder = new Cylinder3( 10, 10, 3.3, 10 ); 15 16 // create array of IShape references 17 IShape[] arrayOfShapes = new IShape[ 3 ]; 18 19 // arrayOfShapes[ 0 ] references Point3 object 20 arrayOfShapes[ 0 ] = point; 21 22 // arrayOfShapes[ 1 ] references Circle3 object 23 arrayOfShapes[ 1 ] = circle; 24 25 // arrayOfShapes[ 2 ] references Cylinder3 object 26 arrayOfShapes[ 2 ] = cylinder; 27 28 string output = point.Name + ": " + point + "\n" + 29 circle.Name + ": " + circle + "\n" + 30 cylinder.Name + ": " + cylinder; 31

  44. 32 foreach ( IShape shape in arrayOfShapes ) 33 { 34 output += "\n\n" + shape.Name + ":\nArea = " + 35 shape.Area() + "\nVolume = " + shape.Volume(); 36 } 37 38 MessageBox.Show( output, "Demonstrating Polymorphism" ); 39 } 40 }

  45. ArrayList • Sample ArrayList code: ArrayList myList = new ArrayList();myList.Add ("DotNetSpider"); // Add a string.myList.Add(1032); // Add an integermyList.Add( DateTime.Now ); // Add current time.myList.Add( new DataTable() ); // Add a datatable

  46. Issues with ArrayList • How do I get a value out: object myInt = myList[2]; • How do I get the correct type – cast: int myInt = (int) myList[2];

  47. Issues with ArrayList • What if I didn’t want a heterogenous collection of objects, but a nice, say queue, of integers? Queue myQueue = new Queue(); myQueue.Put(4); int myInt = (int) myQueue.Get(); • Code littered with casting  • What actually happens – boxing!  Create a new box’ed int on the heap. Copy the value 4 into this box’ed int. Get the box’ed int object. Copy the box’ed value to myInt.

  48. Operator Overloading • User-defined operators • Must be a static method internal class Car { private string vid; public static bool operator ==(Car x, Car y) { return x.vid == y.vid; } }

  49. Operator Overloading • Overloadable unary operators • Overloadable binary operators

  50. Operator Overloading • No overloading for member access, method invocation, assignment operators, nor these operators: sizeof, new, is, as, typeof, checked, unchecked, &&, ||, and ?: • Overloading a binary operator (e.g. *) implicitly overloads the corresponding assignment operator (e.g. *=)