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Myers PSYCHOLOGY 9th Edition in Modules PowerPoint Presentation
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Myers PSYCHOLOGY 9th Edition in Modules

Myers PSYCHOLOGY 9th Edition in Modules

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Myers PSYCHOLOGY 9th Edition in Modules

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    1. Myers PSYCHOLOGY (9th Edition in Modules) Module 1 The Story of Psychology

    2. Psychologys Roots Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Ancient Greeks speculated about the source of human knowledge, the nature of the mind and soul, the relationship of mind to body, and the possibility of scientifically studying these things. Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?

    3. Empiricism knowledge comes from experience via the senses Empiricists like John Locke challenged the idea of the tabula rasa. Plato and Descartes believed in the blank slate. (1600s) science flourishes through observation and experiment

    4. Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879). Wundt believed Psychology should study consciousness and focused on structuralism, the structure of the human mind.

    5. Structuralism Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

    6. Functionalism Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish William James suggested considering the function of thoughts and feelings rather than the structure. For example, smelling is what the nose does and smelling developed because it is adaptive.

    7. Early Psychologists Sigmund Freud: (1856-1939): Discovered the unconscious mind and developed Psychodynamic theory, a theory of development and a theory of personality. John B. Watson: Felt the study of consciousness or the unconscious mind was a waste of time and that psychology should only study overt behavior. B.F. Skinner developed operant conditioning and the functional analysis of behavior. The functional analysis of behavior involves discovering the reward or punishers that shape behavior and changing them to change behavior. The functional analysis of behavior involves discovering the reward or punishers that shape behavior and changing them to change behavior.

    8. Psychologys Roots British Psychological Society membership

    9. Psychology is currently defined as: A. the study of individual experience. B. the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. C. the study of mental life. D. the scientific study of observable behavior.

    10. Contemporary Psychology Psychology the science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)

    11. Nature vs. Nurture Nature-Nurture Controversy the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors

    12. Human Diversity and Psychology Women hold 44% Psychological doctorate degrees, and earn 67% of new doctorates each year. Sociocultural variables such as social identity, ethnicity, gender, social class and culture are considered important in the study of psychology and the treatment of individuals. Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures Gilbert Haven Jones: African American who received his Ph.D. in psych. In Germany 1909 J. Henry Alston: Engaged in research on perception of heat and cold and was the first African American psychologist to be published in a major psych journal (1920). Mary Whiton Calkins: Refused a degree from Radcliffe (Harvards University for women) when she graduated Harvard with a doctoral degree in the late 1800s. First female President of the APA in 1905. Margaret Washburn: Left Columbia University because of discrimination and became the first woman to earn a doctorate in Psycholgy from Cornell. Most countries are multicultural and consists of many subcultures. It is easy to disregard the influence of culture on our minds and behavior. Sociocultural variables are integral to the study of PsychologyMost countries are multicultural and consists of many subcultures. It is easy to disregard the influence of culture on our minds and behavior. Sociocultural variables are integral to the study of Psychology

    13. Psychological Perspectives On June 20, 2001, after her husband had left for work, Andrea Yates, a Houston mother, drowned her five children in the family bathtub. Why? At the time she killed her children, she believed she was possessed and that the sign of Satan (666) was marked on her scalp. She told the police that her children werent developing correctly and that drowning them was the only way to save them. A sister and two brothers are also on antidepressants. Diagnosed as suffering from postpartum depression with psychosis, she had been taken off her antipsychotic medication about a month before the childrens deaths. Andreas husband Russell claimed he had been pleading with doctors to again prescribe Haldol, used in treating people who hear voices or have delusional thoughts. Andreas in-laws report that her husband Russell was not socially supportive. He claimed he had never changed a diaper. How could he leave her alone with the five children when she could barely care for herself? Why, after doctors had strongly recommended no more children, did he impregnate her a fifth time? And where was her extended family when she needed help so desperately? On June 20, 2001, after her husband had left for work, Andrea Yates, a Houston mother, drowned her five children in the family bathtub. Why? At the time she killed her children, she believed she was possessed and that the sign of Satan (666) was marked on her scalp. She told the police that her children werent developing correctly and that drowning them was the only way to save them. A sister and two brothers are also on antidepressants. Diagnosed as suffering from postpartum depression with psychosis, she had been taken off her antipsychotic medication about a month before the childrens deaths. Andreas husband Russell claimed he had been pleading with doctors to again prescribe Haldol, used in treating people who hear voices or have delusional thoughts. Andreas in-laws report that her husband Russell was not socially supportive. He claimed he had never changed a diaper. How could he leave her alone with the five children when she could barely care for herself? Why, after doctors had strongly recommended no more children, did he impregnate her a fifth time? And where was her extended family when she needed help so desperately?

    14. John B. Watson is most likely to say: A. A person needs unconditional love and acceptance in order to reach her true potential. B. A persons behavior reflects unconscious conflicts and emotions that result from early childhood experiences. C. Emotional responses reflect biological processes such as hormones and brain chemistry. D. Science must be rooted in observation of behavior, rather than introspective processes.

    15. Subfields of psychology There are three categories of jobs in Psychology: Applied: Use principles of psychology to improve schools, organizations and industry. Therapeutic: Meet with clients to help improve psychological functioning Research/Experimental: Conduct research on any topic in psychology. Pure research: for its own sake Applied research: intended to address a specific problem

    16. Applied subfields of Psychology: Community: work to obtain services for underserved client groups and prevent psychological problems by working for changes in social systems. Industrial-Organizational: Help improve the performance of people in business and organizations. Sports : Help improve the performance of people in sports. Educational: Develop programs to improve learning for entire schools or school systems. Engineering (Human factors): Make technical systems more user-friendly Health: Use behavioral principles to improve health Forensic: Work with the criminal justice system Consumer: Study the behavior of shoppers

    17. Therapeutic Subfields of Psychology Clinical: Ph.D.: Treat people with psychological disorders Counseling: MA or Ph.D.: Treat people with adjustment problems and relationship issues. Psychiatric: MD: Can prescribe medication. Treat people with psychological disorders School: Work with individual children to improve learning.

    18. Experimental Subfields of Psychology Research can be conducted on any topic in psychology. Examples include: Cognitive: thinking and mental processes Biological: physiological, neuroscientists Personality Developmental Quantitative: Develop statistical methods for analyzing psychological data Social: Study the behavior of people in social situations Note that there are links among subfields of psychology as well as across other fields.Note that there are links among subfields of psychology as well as across other fields.

    19. Dr. Frye conducts research investigations on memory, with the intent of contributing to what is known about human memory processes. Dr. Frye conducts: A. professional service. B. applied research. C. basic research. D. psychiatry.

    20. Tips for Studying Psychology SQ3R survey - Take a look at the module before you begin to study it. Notice how it is organized. question -Form a question that you will answer by studying the module or section of the book. read -Search for the answer to your question. Don't read more than you can absorb in a single sitting. rehearse - in your own words, what you have read. review -re-read your notes and review the module or section.

    21. How To Succeed in Dr. Piercys Class: ATTEND CLASS EVERY DAY! Learn to think critically Think while you learn by analyzing and questioning what you are being asked to believe. In class, listen actively - Do the reading-BEFORE you come to class. PRINT OUT THE NOTES AND USE THEM AS A GUIDE WHILE YOU READ. Rely on the notes during lecture so you can actively participate in class. Overlearn Most people over-estimate their learning. Distribute your time (Don't wait until the night before a test to begin studying) Be a smart test-taker Dont use too much time on one question. RELAX remember that a single test is unlikely to make or break your grade.