REPORT WRITING • WHAT IS A REPORT? • A report is a very formal document that is written for a variety of purposes in the sciences, social sciences, engineering and business disciplines. • The final and the last step in any research is to make report of the findings to make the research and the study accessible to all. • By this report, the research sponsors, government, students, academicians can get to learn and understand the research related work.
SIGNIFICANCE OF REPORT WRITING: • Research report is considered a major component of the research study for the research task remains incomplete till the report has been presented and/ or written. • The purpose of research is not well served unless the findings are made known to others. • The task of report writing must be accomplished by the researcher with utmost care and he may seek the assistance and guidance of the experts.
DIFFERENT STEPS IN WRITING REPORT • The usual steps involved in writing report are • Logical Analysis of the subject matter • Preparation of the final outline • Preparation of the rough draft • Re- writing and polishing • Preparation of the final bibliography • Writing the final draft.
Logical Analysis of the Subject Matter: It is the first step which is primarily concerned with the development of the subject. • Preparation of the final outline: The next step in writing a research report is to outline or to make a frame upon which long written works are constructed. • Preparation of the rough draft: The researcher prepares a rough draft of his research work. He will have to put his work in pen and paper now so that he can ask his critics to comment upon it. • Re-writing and polishing: The careful revision makes the difference between a mediocre and a good piece of writing. In this step, the researcher should check the report for weakness in logical development or presentation.,
5.Preparation of the final Bibliography: The bibliography is a list of books which are used as a reference for the preparation of the report. It should contain all those works which the researcher has consulted. The bibliography should be arranged alphabetically and may be divided into two parts. The first part may contain the names of the books and pamphlets, and second part may contain the names of the magazines and news paper articles. Also the page numbers of the books being referred and the edition and the volume of the magazine being referred must be mentioned. 6.Writing the final Draft: The final draft should be written in a concise and objective style and in simple language, avoiding vague expressions. Also the researcher must avoid abstract terminology and technical words.
MECHANISM OF WRITING A REPORT: • Selecting the topic • Planning the paper • Developing the statement of purpose • Gathering the Information • Connecting your thoughts • Giving credit where credit is due • Quoting, Summarizing • Citations (Crediting Sources within the paragraph) • Editing and Proof reading • General guidelines for reference listings SHIKHA
LAYOUT OF THE RESEARCH REPORT: • The person who is reading the report, must necessarily be conveyed enough about the study. • The layout of the research report should compromise • Preliminary Pages • Main Text • The End matter • Preliminary Pages: • The report should have • The title with the date • Acknowledgement in the form of Preface or the Foreword. • The table of contents (list of tables and illustration)
Conclusions or Implications of the results: The researcher should again put down the results of his research clearly and precisely. It is considered a good practice to finish the report with a short conclusion which summarizes and recapitulates the main points of the study. • Summary: It has become customary to conclude the research report with a brief summary of the report which defines in brief the research problem, the methodology, the major findings and the major conclusions drawn from the research results. • End Matter: • At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data such as questionnaires, mathematical derivations etc. The bibliography should also be given at the end of the report.
Main Text: • Introduction:The purpose of the introduction is to introduce the research topic to the readers. It should clearly indicate the objectives of the research. • Methodology: The methodology adopted in the study should be carefully explained. The main questions that should be kept in mind while deciding the methodology are; How was the study carried out? What was its basic design? • Analysis of data : The analysis of data in the form of tables and charts should be properly narrated in the report. • Statements of Findings and Recommendations: The report must contain the statements of findings and recommendations in the language easily understood by a layman.
PRECAUTIONS FOR WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS: • The research report should be long enough to cover the subjects but short enough to maintain the interest. • The report should not be dull, it should sustain the reader’s interest. • Abstract terminology and technical language should be avoided in a research report. • The report must provide a readily availability of the findings. • The layout of the report must be in accordance with the objectives of the research problem. • The report should be original in nature
Appendices should be properly listed in all respect in order to avoid any confusions. • Bibliography of sources of consulted is a must and it should be very carefully and chronologically arranged. • The report must be attractive in its appearance. • The objective of the study, the nature of the problem, the methods employed and the analysis techniques adopted must all be clearly stated in the beginning of the report in the form of introduction. • The limitations related to the study must also be clearly indicated in the research report.