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Scaffolding Instruction

Scaffolding Instruction

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Scaffolding Instruction

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  1. Scaffolding Instruction Assisting Reading Performance Workshop 2 Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  2. What Is a Scaffold? • A scaffold is a temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner. • Once the skill the scaffold is intended to help has been mastered, the scaffold should be withdrawn. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  3. What Is Scaffolding Instruction? • A set of pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading activities specifically designed to assist a particular group of students in successfully reading, understanding, learning from, and enjoying a reading passage. (Graves & Graves, 2003) Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  4. Why Use Scaffolding Instruction? • Scaffolding a reading passage offers the teacher a flexible plan that takes into consideration: 1. The particular group of students 2. The text they are reading 3. The purpose for reading the text Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  5. Why Use Scaffolding Instruction? Scaffolding a reading experience also provides: 1. Temporary support for students to use in understanding and discussing the reading selection. 2. Methods to enhance student engagement with the text, allowing for deeper understanding of knowledge. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  6. What Advantages Does Scaffolding Instruction Offer? • A temporary support structure to assist the student’s comprehension of text. • A support structure that allows students to complete tasks and gain knowledge. • Activities which can be used to self-monitor and internalize reading skills. • Activities which provide ways for students to discuss and write about reading passages. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  7. What Advantages Does Scaffolding Instruction Offer? • Scaffolding provides for a plan to develop independent readers • Scaffolding is a temporary support plan which should be removed when the leaner reaches an independent reading level and can self-monitor their reading. • Scaffolding includes an instructional framework. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  8. What Are the Components of an Instructional Framework Scaffold? • Initiating students toward reading at independent levels. • Constructing meaning from the text. • Utilizingtext meanings to apply or act upon the meanings students have constructed. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  9. Teachers should: Introduce content Assess prior knowledge Identify purpose for reading Stimulate curiosity Develop a strategic plan Students should: Preview the content Assess prior knowledge Build upon prior knowledge Determine purposes Raise questions/issues Recognize a need to know Develop a strategic reading plan Initiating Component Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  10. Teachers should consider: Class size Needs of students Diverse learning styles Complexity of subject matter Time spent on a reading assignment Students should : Engage Interact Process information Associate with life experiences Organize Think about thepassage Constructing Component Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  11. Teachers should: Explain Clarify Model Demonstrate Guide the student using the scaffold activity selected Students should: Write ideas Synthesize information Clarify and organize ideas Refine concepts Move toward independence from using the scaffold Utilizing Component Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  12. How Are Scaffolding Instruction Activities Sequenced? • Before Reading Scaffolds • During Reading Scaffolds • After Reading Scaffolds Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  13. Before Reading Scaffolds • Two Minute Preview • K-W-L Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  14. Two Minute Preview Description • Provides students with an overview of the selection • Helps students develop a plan for reading a selection • Previewing a reading passage can help students become active and engaged with the text. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  15. Two Minute Preview Procedures • Can be used with pairs or whole class • Good scaffold for predicting text structure and organization of content • Teacher leads the class in discussion of preview findings Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  16. Two Minute Preview Guide Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  17. K-W-L Scaffold • A widely used strategy to foster active reading, consists of three steps: • K- What do I already know? • W-What do I want to find out? • L-What did I learn, and still need to learn? Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  18. Why Use the K-W-L Scaffold? Provides a structure which: • Activates prior knowledge • Builds upon prior knowledge • Elicits student input Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  19. Sample K-W-L Scaffold Chart • K • W • L Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  20. During Reading Scaffolds • Key Questions • Note Taking: Do it Yourself Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  21. The Key Questions Scaffold This scaffold strategy is designed to help students process the basic elements of of ( Who? What? When? Where? And How?) of what they read. Students use this scaffold to note and present information to a small group or whole class. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  22. Why Use the Key Questions Scaffold? This scaffold is used: • When working with readers who have trouble comprehending at the literal level. • To present the new information helps integrate it into existing schemata. • When teachers need a quick,informal assessment tool to judge student reading performance on a text passage. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  23. The Key Questions Procedure • Teacher models five key questions in a selection • Students read and record information to answer the five key questions using the key questions worksheet. • Students may design a flipchart of notes. • Students present the information orally to the class Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  24. The Key Questions Scaffold:Student Worksheet Use the key questions scaffold below with the reading assignment. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  25. Note Taking: Do It Yourself • Effective note taking is one of the most important skills students can develop. • Real value in note taking is revisiting the notes and reacting, organizing, and using them in some way. • Revisiting notes and using them in classroom instruction leads to deeper understanding and integration into one’s schema. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  26. Note Taking: Do It Yourself • There are many types of note taking systems. • Any note-taking system should present information in an organized manner that can be adapted for verbal and visual presentations. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  27. Note Taking Using the R3 System Students perform the following actions: • Read the text passage • Record important notes • Respond to the notes by writing questions and answering those questions • React by writing a summary about what they are learning. • Make associations to learn new material by linking to existing knowledge Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  28. Note Taking Using the R3 System Use the R3 note taking scaffold below. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  29. After Reading Scaffolds • Think Aloud Strategy • Writing to Learn Strategy • The Last Word Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  30. Think Aloud Strategy • This scaffold helps students understand the thinking required by a specific task. • The teacher models the thinking process as she/he reads aloud. • Students see how the teacher constructs meaning from unfamiliar vocabulary, and new text content. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  31. Think Aloud Strategy Scaffolding • Includes the following activities: • Reading aloud • Developing questions • Verbalizing thoughts • Making predictions as you read • Explaining how one connects new content with prior knowledge. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  32. Think Aloud Activities Coping strategies you can model include: • Making predictions • Forming a hypothesis • Creating analogies • Verbalizing Fix-Up Strategies • Using retelling to review a process or procedure Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  33. Think Aloud Guide Sheet None A Little Most of Always the time Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  34. Writing To Learn Strategy • Can be incorporated across the curriculum • Helps students personalize learning • Encourages high-level thinking skills • Assists in helping students construct meaning from the text • Writing activities are brief Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  35. Writing To Learn Strategy Steps 1.Select the concept you want students to explore. 2. Assign the Writing to learn activity any time during the class. 3. Give students three to five minutes think time to consider a response 4. Have students write five minutes on the topic. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  36. Writing To Learn Strategy • Writing to learn discussion can be centered on the written response • Writing to learn helps students reflect on information under discussion. • Writing to learn can be effect in helping Students construct summaries of their reading assignment. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  37. The Last Word Strategy • The Last Word is a writing to learn activity used at the end of a discussion or reading. • Students spend the last ten minutes of class completing the Last Word Writing guide. • In the guide, students write the teacher a brief letter about information they do not understand, need clarified, or reviewed. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  38. The Last Word Strategy Guide The Last Word Name _________, Date____, Class______ Today, I understood:__________. Today, I did not understand:________. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  39. Writing to Learn: Guidelines • Identify appropriate topic and writing activity. • Keep content the central focus. • Provided sufficient writing time. • Design the writing activity to review, question and summarize knowledge • Provide time to students to discuss their written responses. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  40. Scaffolding Instruction Review In this program, we have presented: • A rationale for scaffolding. • A reading frame work for using scaffolding: before, during and after the reading process • Six scaffolding activities teachers can integrate with their content reading assignments. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA

  41. Resources Used in This Program • Billmeyer, Rachel & Barton, Mary Lee. ( 1998) TeachingReading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who?, McREL, Aurora, CO. • Brozo, W.G., & Simpson, M.L. (1999) Readers, Teachers and Learners: Expanding Literacy Across the Content Areas, Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ. • Graves, Michael & Graves, Bonnie. ( 2003) Scaffolding Reading Experiences: Designs for Student Success, Christopher-Gordon Publishers: Norwood, MA. • Stephens, Elaine & Brown, Jean. (2000) A Handbook of Content Literacy Strategies: 75 Practical Reading and Writing Ideas, Christopher-Gordon Publishers: Norwood, MA. Temple CTE Reading Project D. Garnes, FRA