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Your name Your qualifications

Your name Your qualifications

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Your name Your qualifications

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  1. Your nameYour qualifications Plagiarism and Harvard Referencing Your job title

  2. Aims of this session • To explain the different types of plagiarism • To demonstrate how not to plagiarise • Introduce you to citing items in your essay • Demonstrate how to create a reference list

  3. Plagiarism – what is it? • Plagiarism is when you copy someone else’s work or use their ideas in your essay, course work, thesis etc, and then do not acknowledge that you have done this. • Definition • The wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or the expression of the idea (literary, artistic, musical, mechanical, etc) of another.’ Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed, (1989) Clarendon Press, Oxford.

  4. Why you should not plagiarise! Every discovery builds on a framework of existing knowledge. You must therefore read literature and understand what’s gone before. But you can’t steal other people’s words or ideas. Correct acknowledgment of your sources is key. ‘Learning how to make proper and responsible use of other people’s work… is the heart of academic life.' Pyper H. (2000) Avoiding plagiarism: advice for students. Leeds, School of Theology and Religious Studies, University of Leeds.

  5. Why you should not plagiarise! If you do not acknowledge another writer’s work or ideas, you could be accused of plagiarism. If you are found to have plagiarised with ‘intent’ you are cheating. This could lead to you having an assignment marked as a ‘fail’ or even to exclusion from the university

  6. Types of plagiarism There are many different ways to plagiarise but the most common ones are: Collusion • If another student allows you to copy their work and you then present the work as your own, you are deliberately trying to deceive the lecturer who is marking your work. This is known as collusion.

  7. Copy and paste This is when you copy a piece of work from the internet, an electronic book or journal or word document and paste it into your assignment without acknowledging the source. If you copy and paste work you should always use quotation marks and reference it appropriately.

  8. Word switch If you copy a sentence or paragraph into your assignment and change a few words it will still be classed as plagiarism. It is better to paraphrase than to quote wherever possible. If you copy a phrase you should copy it word for word and use quotation marks and reference it appropriately.

  9. Misinterpreting common knowledge • Common knowledge is information which is: • well known to all in a particular field • easily verified by consulting standard textbooks or encyclopaedias such as undisputed historical facts or well known formulas or equations Examples: Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 Charles Dickens is the author of A Christmas Carol

  10. Common knowledge Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603. Elizabeth kept the last letter that Leicester wrote to her by her bedside. Not common knowledge

  11. Concealing sources If you have cited a piece of work from a text this does not mean you do not have to reference any other text you refer to from that work. No matter how many times you refer back to the text you must acknowledge the source, even if it is in the very next paragraph.

  12. Self plagiarism Self plagiarism is when you re-use your own previously written work or data in a new assignment and do not reference it appropriately. This could be conceived as deceiving your lecturer. Things to remember! • If you use material from a previous assignment you must reference it appropriately • Never use the same essay for different lecturers • If re-sitting a course do not submit the same essay

  13. You can avoid plagiarism by: • Paraphrasing • Quoting • Referencing & Citing • An anti-plagiarism plan More detailed information can be found on Olivia – Unit 7

  14. Paraphrasing What is it? Paraphrasing is when you read a piece of work and then rewrite it in your own words while retaining the ‘flavour’ and ‘ideas’ of the original text. Paraphrasing demonstrates that you have understood the academic context of the piece and allows you to support your argument.

  15. Quoting • Quoting is when you use the exact words of an author in your assignment. • Quotations help support your arguments and help to reinforce or raise a new point. • According to a survey carried out by FreshMinds ‘one in four students admitted to plagiarising work’. Batty (2004: p2)

  16. Referencing and citing It is very important that you reference and cite your work properly. If you do reference your work correctly you can help increase your marks and avoid being accused of plagiarism.

  17. Summary Don’t forget: • to paraphrase. • if you quote text, indicate what is quoted and where it comes form • if you use ideas or any other intellectual property belonging to someone else, acknowledge your source • if the facts are common knowledge there is no need to provide a citation but if you are in any doubt it is better to be safe and cite our source

  18. Referencing • What is it? • Why do it? • How to do it!

  19. What is it? Referencing is a way of acknowledging that you have used ideas and written material belonging to another author.

  20. Why do it? • It demonstrates that you have undertaken a literature search and that you have carried out appropriate reading. • If you do not acknowledge another writers work or ideas, you could be accused of plagiarism. • Good, consistent referencing helps improve your assessment grade!

  21. How to do it! • We are going to use the ‘Harvard’ method of citation. • You need to reference: • Books • Journal articles • Electronic journal articles • World-wide-web pages • Video, films, CD-ROMs & audio tape recordings

  22. How to do it! • Newspapers • Pamphlets • Radio / TV broadcasts • Interviews

  23. Citing in the text • When you have used an idea from a book, journal article etc, you must acknowledge this in your text. We refer to this as 'citing'. • If you are citing a piece of work you must always state the author / editor and the date of publication. If the work has two authors / editors you must cite both names.

  24. Citing in the text One author Example: The work of Smith (2001) emphasised that the research done by Holstein was in direct conflict of that produced by Greene. However, Theakston & Boddington (2001) consider that … Two authors

  25. Citing in the text • If the work has three or more authors / editors the abbreviation ‘et al’ should be used after the first authors name. Example: The work of Smith et al (2001) emphasises that the research done by Holstein was in direct conflict of that produced by Greene.

  26. Citing in the text • If you reference an item which has the same author and was written in the same year as an earlier citation you must use a lower case letter after the date to differentiate between the two. Example: The work of Smith (2001a) emphasises that the research done by Holstein was in direct conflict of that produced by Greene.

  27. Citing from chapters written by different authors • Some books may contain chapters written by different authors. When citing work from such a book, the author who wrote the chapter should be cited, not the editor of the book.

  28. Secondary referencing • Second hand references are when an author refers to another author’s work and the primary source is not available. When citing such work the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used.

  29. Secondary referencing Example: Ellis (1990)cited by Cox (1991) discusses NB: Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.

  30. Quoting in the text Often is better to paraphrase (and thus show your skills of interpretation and understanding), than to use direct quotes. If a direct quote from a book, article etc is used you must: • Use single quotation marks, (double quotation marks are usually used for quoting direct speech). • State the page number. Example: Simpson (2002:p6) declared that ‘the explosive behaviour was unexpected.’

  31. Quoting in the text • Have a separate, indented paragraph for quotes over two lines. Example: Boden (1998:p72) states: ‘The most common female crime prosecuted at the Quarter Sessions was that of battering men. This would suggest that women were not the passive and obedient members of society that men would have liked to believe they were.’

  32. Quoting in the text • Part of the original text may be omitted from the quotation as long as three dots are used to indicate this. Example: Boden (1998:p72) states: ‘The most common female crime prosecuted at the Quarter Sessions was that of battering men …women beating or dominating a man was a particularly sensitive issue as it threatened the perpetuation of the patriarchal society …’

  33. Quoting in the text • Duplication of charts, diagrams, pictures etc, should be treated as direct quotes in that the author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers shown.

  34. Citing and quoting from multi-media and Online Resources • Electronic journal (e-journals) articles • When citing from an e-journal article it should be treated in the same way as a paper journal, using the author’s surname and the publication date. • World Wide Web (WWW) • If the web site has an obvious author and date of publication, the information should be cited like a book or journal article • If there is not an obvious author, but the work is situated on an organisational web site the organisation can be used as a ‘corporate author’

  35. Citing and quoting from multi-media and Online Resources Example: The Department of Health (2001) If there is no author or corporate author use the title of the document as the main point of reference.

  36. Citing and quoting from multi-media and Online Resources CD-ROMs • If there is not an obvious author use the title of the CD-ROM as the main point of reference Example: Encyclopaedia Britannica (2001)

  37. Citing and quoting from multi-media and Online Resources Multimedia • If a video recording or audio-cassette is cited, the series title should be used as the “author”. Example: World in Action (2002)

  38. Reference list & bibliography At the end of your assignment you must put a reference list and a bibliography.

  39. Reference list • This is a list of all the sources that have been cited in the assignment. The list is inclusive showing books, journals etc listed in one list, not in separate lists according to source type. • The list should be in alphabetical order by author / editor. • Books, paper journals articles, e-journal articles etc are laid out in a particular format that must be followed.

  40. Reference list - Books • Layout • Author / Editor - if it is an editor always put (ed) after the name • (Year of publication) • Title (this should be in italics) • Series title and number (if part of a series) • Edition (if not the first edition) • Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) • Publisher

  41. Reference list - Books Example: Autistic Association (2002) Understanding Autism. London, Campion. Kirk, J (ed) (1999) Worlds Apart. Florida,Enterprise. Rymer, J. (2001)Nottingham Forest - Dream Team. London, Blackwell. Simpson, H. Jones, E. & Miles, C. (2002)The History of Springfield. 2nd edition. Derby, Bugle press.

  42. Reference list – Chapters in books Layout • Author of the chapter • (Year of publication) • Title of chapter followed by, In: • Editor - always put (ed) after the name • Title (this should be in italics) • Series title and number (if part of a series) • Edition (if not the first edition) • Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) • Publisher

  43. Reference list – Chapters in books Example: Stone, T. (2002) Libraries in the Twenty-First Century. In: Woolley, M (Ed) The Changing World of Information Retrieval. Luton, UOL Press.

  44. Reference list – Journal articles • Layout • Author / Editor • (Year of publication) • Title of journal article • Title of journal (this should be in italics) • Volume number • Page numbers of the article

  45. Reference list – Journal articles Example: Picard, J. (2001) Logistics and the Borg. Starbug Tribune. 36, 44 – 49.

  46. Reference list – e journal articles • Layout • Author / Editor • (Year of publication) • Title of journal article • Title of journal (this should be in italics) • [Online] • Volume number • Part number • Page numbers of the article • Available from: URL • [date of access]

  47. Reference list – e journal articles Example: Smith, B. (1999) Time to go home. Journal of Hyperactivity [Online] 6, 122 - 3 Available from: http://www.alu.ac.uk [Accessed 6th June, 2000].

  48. Reference list – WWW • Layout • Author / Editor • (Year) • Title (this should be in italics) • [Online] • Available from: URL • [date of access]

  49. Reference list – WWW Example: Edelson, S. (no date) Asperger’s Syndrome. [Online] Available from: http://www.autism.org/asperger.html [Accessed 19th September 2002].

  50. Reference list – multi-media Layout • Video recordings: Recorded from the TV Example: World in Action. (1995) All work and no play [Video:VHS] London, ITV, 21st January. • Video recordings: Commercial Example: Fragile Earth, 5 (1982) South American Wetland:Pantanal. [Video:VHS] Henley, Watchword Video.