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Pertemuan 20 Sistem informasi di dalam Organisasi/Perusahaan

Pertemuan 20 Sistem informasi di dalam Organisasi/Perusahaan

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Pertemuan 20 Sistem informasi di dalam Organisasi/Perusahaan

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  1. Pertemuan 20Sistem informasi di dalam Organisasi/Perusahaan Matakuliah : T0604-Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Tahun : 2008 Versi : 2.0/0.0 Sumber: Chapter 8. Databases & Information Systems: Digital engines for today’s economy, p.407 Williams, B.K, Stacy C. Sawyer (2007). Using Information Technology: A Practical Introduction to Computers & Communications. Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York. ISBN-13: 978-0-07-110768-6

  2. Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : • menjelaskan: pengertian dari sistem informasi, sistem informasi yg umum digunakan di dalam organisasi, serta jenis-jenis sistem informasi; pengertian artificial intelligence dan area penerapannya (C2)

  3. Outline Materi • Using Databases to Help Make Decisions • Artificial Intelligence

  4. Using Databases to Help Make Decisions • 6 computer-based information systems • Office information systems • Transaction processing systems • Management information systems • Decision support systems • Executive support systems • Expert systems

  5. Using Databases to Help Make Decisions • Transaction Processing System (TPS) • Transactions are recorded events of routine business activities such as bills, orders, and inventory • TPS systems keep track of the transactions needed to conduct a business • TPS systems are used by operational managers to track business activities • Transactions database provides the basis for management information systems and decision support systems Has anyone seen the movie “Office Space”? In that movie, the hero’s boss is nagging him about formatting the TPS report correctly. Now you know what TPS means!

  6. Using Databases to Help Make Decisions • Management Information Systems (MIS) • Computer-based information system that uses data recorded by a TPS as input to programs that produce routine reports as output • Features • Inputs are processed transaction data. Outputs are summarized structured reports • Designed for tactical managers • Draws from all departments • Produces several kinds or reports: summary, exception, periodic, and demand

  7. Using Databases to Help Make Decisions • Decision Support Systems (DSS) • Computer information system that provides a flexible tool for analysis and helps management focus on the future • Features • Inputs are external data and internal data such as summarized reports and processed transaction data. Outputs are demand reports • Mainly for tactical managers • Produces analytic models • Developed to support the types of decisions faced by managers in specific industries

  8. Using Databases to Help Make Decisions • Executive Support Systems • An easy-to-use DSS made especially for strategic managers to support strategic decision-making • Might allow executives to call up predefined reports • Includes capability to browse through summarized information on all aspects of the organization and drill down for detailed data • Allows executives to perform “what-if” scenarios

  9. Artificial Intelligence • Expert System • One of the most useful applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) • AI is a group of related technologies used to develop software and machines that emulate human qualities such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing, and hearing • Areas include • Expert systems • Natural language processing • Intelligent agents • Virtual reality and simulation devices • Pattern recognition • Fuzzy logic • Robotics

  10. Artificial Intelligence • Three components of an expert system • Knowledge base • An expert system’s database of knowledge about a particular subject • Inference engine • The software that controls the search of the expert system’s knowledge base and produces conclusions • User interface • The display screen the user used to interact with the expert system

  11. Artificial Intelligence • Natural language processing • Allows users to interact with a system using normal English • The study of ways for computers to recognize and understand human language • Intelligent agents • A form of software with built-in intelligence that monitors work patterns, asks questions, and performs work tasks on your behalf • Pattern recognition • Involves a camera and software that identify recurring patterns in its vision and maps the pattern against patterns stored in a database

  12. Artificial Intelligence • Fuzzy logic • A method of dealing with imprecise data and uncertainty, with problems that have many answers rather than one • Has been applied in running elevators to determine optimum times for elevators to wait • Virtual reality • A computer-generated artificial reality that projects a person into a sensation of 3-D space • Often used with simulators to represent the behavior of physical or abstract systems

  13. Artificial Intelligence • Robotics • The development and study of machines that can perform work that is normally done by people • Commonly found in manufacturing plants and also in situations where people would be in danger • Nuclear plants • Assembly lines, especially paint lines • Checking for land mines • Fighting oil-well fires

  14. Artificial Intelligence • Weak vs. Strong A.I. • Weak A.I. claims computers can be programmed to simulate human cognition • Strong A.I. claims that computers can think on a level that is equal to or better than humans, and can also achieve consciousness • Cyc approach to strong A.I. • A database in Austin, TX that holds 1.4 million basic truths • Plan is that Cyc will automatically make human-like assumptions • Hope is that Cyc will learn on its own • Cog approach to strong A.I. • MIT project that is a humanoid robot • Tries to identify and search for patterns instead of following rules and facts

  15. Artificial Intelligence • Test for Human Intelligence • In 1950, Allen Turing predicted computers would be able to mimic human thinking • The Turing test determines whether the machine is human • Judge is in another location and doesn’t see the computer • If the computer can fool the judge, it is said to be intelligent • Ethics in A.I. • Prof. William Wallace from R.P.I. says that computer software is subtly shaped by the ethical judgments of its creators • For example, H.M.O. software used by health insurers steers doctors to cheaper procedures – but are they better?

  16. Kesimpulan