Supply Chain Management: From Vision to Implementation Chapter 3: Process Thinking: SCM’s Foundation
Chapter 3: Learning Objectives • Identify and describe the challenges created by functional thinking. • Discuss the anatomy of a typical process. Describe the flows that comprise a process.
Chapter 3: Learning Objectives • Explain the role of system’s thinking in process design and management. Discuss the requirements and impediments to system’s analysis. • Describe the company as a series of interactive decisions made across functional boundaries and resources types.
Chapter 3: Learning Objectives • Explain process reengineering, describing how it can be used to design world-class processes.
Process Management It’s a shift from competing on what we make to how we make it. • David Robinson, President CSC Index on the need for process thinking • Functional thinking limits cooperation and impedes creative thinking. • Process management promotes collaboration, facilitating customer satisfaction at low cost.
Process Management Process Management requires companies to: • Recognize the limiting nature of functional structures • Instill process thinking throughout the company • Process integration remains rare • Michael Hammer estimates less than 10% of companies have made a serious and successful effort • Requires major changes to measurement, job design, management roles, and organizational structure
Functional Organization Groups resources into specific departments which perform specific tasks to help the company achieve desired goals. • Research and Development - translates customer needs into tangible products. The goal is to design appealing, easy-to-make products with shorter concept-to-market lead times. • Purchasing acquires the right materials at the right price for use in operations. Sourcing’s goal is to select the right suppliers and then build the right relationships with them. • Production transforms inputs into a more highly valued and desirable product or service. The goal: to use capital, energy, knowledge, and labor are used to build processes that make low-cost, high-quality goods. • Logistics moves and stores goods so they are available for use in operations or for sale to customers. Logistics seeks to leverage critical activities like transportation, warehousing, and order processing to make sure materials and products are where they need to be when they need to be at the lowest cost. • Marketing identifies customer needs and communicates to the customer how the company can meet those needs. Marketing’s objective is to perform a liaison role between the company and its customers.
(Dys)Functional Behavior • Functional structures result in a failure to see beyond the department level to the end user. • Decisions are made to achieve local, functional optimum without regard to impact on the remainder of the company. • Due to inherent conflicts between department goals and measurements, departments are compelled to take dysfunctional actions.
Process Thinking • Process thinking aligns decisions with corporate strategy and coordinates actions across functions. • Each process consists of a set of flows and value-added activities. • Information Flow • Physical Flow • Financial Flow
Value-Added Process Materials Acquisition New Product Development
Systems Thinking Systems thinkingis the holistic process of considering both the immediate local outcomes and the longer-term system-wide ramifications of decisions. It requires: • A Holistic View • Information Availability and Accuracy • Cross-Functional and Interorganizational Teamwork • Measurement • Systems Analysis
Holistic View • Managers do not see all of the interrelationships, nor do they understand all of the trade-offs that occur within organizations. • Process visibility is a prerequisite to systems thinking. • Holistic understanding of the system is more important when trying to coordinate the efforts of two or more companies.
Information Availability and Accuracy • A tremendous amount of data must be collected, analyzed, and translated into knowledge before well-informed, holistic decisions can be made. • This is being facilitated by: • Bar Codes and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • Data Warehousing and Data-Mining • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Cross-Functional Teams • Company, department, or sub-unit loyalty can make holistic decision making difficult across the supply chain. • Cross-functional and Interorganizational teams help to improve flow of information and builds trust between organizations and functional areas within organizations. • Co-location promotes spontaneous discussion and collaborative decision making.
Measurement • Often times compensation, recognition, and reward systems are at odds with holistic long term decision making. • People will not make holistic decision when measured on local or functional outcomes. • Aligning measurement and compensation systems to support the organization's long term objectives is one of the biggest challenges companies face today.
Systems Analysis Systems thinking requires that companies and their employees understand their place in the larger chain. Therefore, the following must be addressed: • Establish the Core Goal • Define System Boundaries • Determine Interrelationships • Determine Information Requirements • Perform Trade-Off Analysis • Consider System Constraints
Systems Analysis • Establish the Core Goal – to insure all participants efforts lead to the same outcome a well-thought-out and communicated goal is required. • Define System Boundaries – defines who is and who is not a member of the collaborative group. This should be done at a level that can most effectively achieve the group’s goal. • Determine Interrelationships – different members of the collaborative group perform different tasks, it is important to explicitly identify how the actions at one location impact the performance at another.
Systems Analysis • Determine Information Requirements – without accurate, relevant, and timely information good decision making is impossible. We must therefore identify what information is necessary and then design a system to capture, analyze, and provide it to the correct decision makers. • Perform Trade-Off Analysis – decisions at one location will impact the performance at another, it is important that these trade-offs be explored before a decision is made. • Consider System Constraints – systems have constraints that limit their ability to obtain their goals. We must explicitly identify internal (policies, capacity, measures, etc.) and external (government regulations, customer requirements, supplier capabilities, etc.) that limit our abilities.
A Process View of a Company Decisions made throughout an organization should focus on using available resources to create customer value. • Customer focus defines the company’s value proposition and drives competency. • Competency guides functional decision making. • Competency development dictates resource allocation. • Information and performance systems align efforts on the system’s goal.
Strategic Linkage • The role of strategy is to direct the use of resources to develop the correct competencies to drive the firm’s value proposition. • Value Proposition – the value that the firm promises to deliver to the customer. • Competencies – the skills and processes that collectively deliver the promised value. • Core Competency – what the company is so good at that it drives competitive advantage.
Generic Strategies • Cost Leadership – ability to deliver at a cost below competitors • Differentiation – ability to deliver some unique value which reduces price sensitivity • Quality • Delivery • Flexibility • Innovation • Survival often requires low cost and high quality.
Unit Price Inventory Holding Costs Risk of Obsolescence Cost of Rejects Cost of Money Letter of Credit Relationship Maintenance Costs Language & Cultural Training Costs International Transportation Costs Inland Freight Costs (Domestic & Foreign) Insurance & Tariffs Export Taxes Damage in Transit Technical Support Brokerage Costs Employee Travel Costs Global Operating Expenses
Resource Management Every company must manage five resources: • People – determine the productivity and quality of the system; provide the creativity and passion that determines success; requires education and training • Technology – includes hardware and software; used effectively improves productivity • Materials – all goods and services used in the value-added process for the creation of output • Infrastructure – physical bricks and mortar assets used in the value creating process. • Capital – necessary to finance continuing operations • Coordinated decision making regarding resource allocation across functions is the key to competitive advantage.
Information Sharing Communicates strategic objectives and organizational roles. Typical types and uses of data are: • Customer-related - defines goals, value propositions, and competencies • Firm capabilities and processes - strengths and weaknesses so that an effective strategy can be developed and implemented • Competitors' strategies and capabilities - anticipate competitive threats as well as competitors’ reactions to the company’s own strategic moves • External operating environment - identify potential threats and opportunities such as new markets or the emergence of a new technology • SC operating information - used to make good day-to-day decisions: how many and type of suppliers needed to support the production schedule • "Success stories" - creates momentum for process integration
Performance Measurement Performance measurement systems must: • be aligned with strategic objectives; and • clearly communicate expectations and responsibilities. Well designed performance systems: • create understanding of strategic and tactical objectives • promote behaviors consistent with achieving objectives • document actual results, monitoring progress toward goals • benchmark capabilities vis-à-vis competitors’ abilities and customers’ expectations • motivate continuous improvement
Process Reengineering • Reengineering is the radical redesign of business processes using systems thinking and information technology. • Reengineering builds the process from scratch focusing on desired customer outcomes. • Restructuring replaces resources with technology changing the basic process design or challenging whether the process should be done.
Steps to Process Reengineering • Identify Desired Outcomes – processes are redesigned to fulfill specific customer needs. • Make Processes Visible – process mapping identifies activities, resources, and performance dimensions helping management to understand the as-is process. • Assign Responsibility for Work – responsibility for redesign should be at the level where work is done; employees understand the process and have untapped ideas for improving it. • Leverage Technology – technology makes it possible to achieve outcomes in new ways.
Reengineering Systematically Michael Hammer suggests that companies: • Look for role models outside your industry. • Identify and defy a constraining assumption. • Make the special case into the norm. • Rethink the following dimensions of work: • What results the work delivers • Who performs the work • Where work is done • When work is performed • Whether the work should be done • What information the work requires • How thoroughly the work is performed
A Return to the Opening Story Based on what you have now read and discussed: • What do Joe Andrus’ words, “We’ll trust you on this one” really mean? • How can Doug use a challenging competitive environment to motivate change? • In what ways might a functional organization make SCM difficult to implement? • Who should Doug include on the task force? What characteristics would you want people on your team to possess? • How should Doug assess and document SCM’s competitive viability?
Supply Chain Management: From Vision to Implementation Supplement C: Decision Making Under Uncertainty
Decision Making Under Uncertainty • Managers generally do not have perfect information when making decisions. Thus, decisions often include elements of risk. To manage that risk, probabilistic models are often developed. • Expected Value Analysis • Decision Trees
Expected Value Analysis • In situations where an outcome and probability of that outcome can be determined for various alternatives, expected value analysis can be employed. • Expected Value is the sum of the probability of an outcome times the value of that outcome
Expected Value - Example Managers are deciding between two alternatives with the following payoffs, state of nature, and probabilities. Which alternative should be chosen?
Decision Trees • Decision Trees are an effective means to convey decision information, especially when decisions are sequential in nature. • Decision Trees are comprised of three elements: • Decision Nodes - points where managers can take action • States of Nature - uncertainty in the environment over which the manager has no control • Arcs – branches linking decision and state of nature nodes • Branches stemming from decision nodes represent the alternatives available to managers • Branches stemming from states of nature represent the possible outcomes
Decision Robustness • Using sensitivity (what-if) analysis managers can challenge the robustness of their decisions. • If small input changes result in different outcomes/decisions, the decision is not robust. • If small input changes result in similar outcome/decision, the decision is robust. • Managers can have more confidence in robust decisions.