THE ROAD TO WAR . . . again!
The treaty to end WWI demanded: 1. The surrender of all German colonies as instructed by the League of Nations. 2. The return of all land taken by Germany, Austria and the Ottoman Empire. 3. German reparations-compensation for an insult or injury - of £6,600 million ($ 442 billion in 2011). 4. A ban on the union of Germany and Austria.
5. An acceptance of Germany's guilt in causing the war (War Guilt Clause). 6. Limitation of Germany's army to 100,000 men with no conscription, no tanks, no heavy artillery, no poison-gas supplies, no aircraft and no airships.
Germany signed the Versailles Treaty under protest. • The USA Congress refused to ratify and sign the treaty because its ideas (14 Point Plan to rebuild Germany) weren’t considered. • Many people in France and Britain were angry that there was no trial of the Kaiser or the other war leaders. • No one was happy...and what do unhappy countries tend to do?
There was a fragile peace after the Versailles Treaty: • The Map of Europe was re-drawn • Imperialism, militarism, and nationalism were still very much alive. • Over 50 million people died. • Dictators and Fascism were on the rise.
Ideological forces were once again awakened in Europe under the banner of fascism– a form of dictatorship that blended totalitarianism with militant nationalism. Fascists Leaders Hitler (Germany) Mussolini (Italy) Franco (Spain)
Joseph Stalin ( Russia) • Emperor Hirohito (Japan) • Economic conditions during the Depression gave way to the rise of dictators. • It was believed democracy had caused the economic conditions and a new way was sought.
The League of Nations was set up in the aftermath of the First World War in the hope that international cooperation and collective resistance to aggression might prevent another war. • Members of the League were entitled to the assistance of other members if they came under attack. • European nations were so afraid to go to war they never got involved in any conflicts to help their allies. • The US , the largest economic, industrial and military power, did not join the L of N and European nations had become crippled by WWI.
Without military power or the will to use it the League of nations had become a toothless tiger.
What does the cartoonist suggests Hitler is doing? Who are the other people in this picture and what does the cartoonist think of them?
Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming Germany Hitler visits a factory and is enthusiastically greeted. Many Germans were grateful for jobs after the misery of he depression years.
The Rhineland was a region of Germany that was ‘demilitarised’ after the Treaty of Versailles. • Germany was not allowed to have troops in the region. Hitler’s actions showed how he was willing to directly challenge the treaty. March 1936: German troops marched into the Rhineland
Again, this went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from uniting with Austria. • However, the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrian people. March 1938: Nazi Germany annexed Austria
Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland). • Many hoped that that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis. • However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. • This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin. March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia
August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact Hitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a ‘non-aggression pact’. They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war. As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon. This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background
Stalin Hitler The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies. When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia. Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia
September 1939: Germany invaded Poland But, the pact allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
Blitzkrieg • This new “lightning war” was developed by Germany to take advantage of their very modern and mobile army. • Within 2 days German ground forces had overwhelmed the initial lines of Polish defense.
War Again? • On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a war with Britain and France. • Canada declared war on Germany one week later, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King expressed Canada’s perspective: “We take this stand on our own, not in any colonial attitude of mind.”
Canada’s Role? • Canada declares war one week later on Sept. 10th, 1939. Why? • King pledged to not introduce conscription for overseas service. • “Conscription if necessary, but not necessarily conscription."
The Axis and the Allies The Allies • Great Britain • France • Canada • Russia British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, American President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Russian President Joseph Stalin
The Axis and the Allies The Axis Powers: • Germany • Italy • Japan Italian Leader Mussolini with German leader Adolf Hitler
The War in Europe • Nothing happened for seven months this is called The Phoney War. • Germany then attacks Denmark and Norway. They offer little resistance.
Germany invades France and the Netherlands In May 1940, Germany used Blitzkrieg tactics to attack France and the Netherlands. British troops were forced to retreat from the beaches of Dunkirk in northern France. Captured British troops, May 1940
Disaster at Dunkirk The 330,000 soldiers of the B.E.F. (British Expeditionary Force) were surrounded by the German army at Dunkirk and had to escape by boat back home.
Prime minister Winston Churchill took to the air waves to raise the British morale. • “We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be,we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender”
By June 1940, France had surrendered to the Germans Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler’s Germany in Western Europe. Adolf Hitler tours Paris after his successful invasion.
Hitler’s Europe……… How could Britain alone mount a full scale invasion to liberate Europe from Nazi rule ?
Hitler plans to invade Britain next ‘Operation Sealion’ (the invasion of Britain) was scheduled to take place on September 15th 1940.
RAF Fighter Command was Britain’s main line of defence. A few hundred planes stood between Britain and a German invasion.
September 1940-May 1941: the Blitz For the following nine months, the German air force (Luftwaffe) launched repeated bombing raids on British towns and cities. This was known as the BLITZ and was an attempt to bomb Britain into submission.
Hitler’s Big Mistake • Operation Barbarossa, June 1941 • Hitler ordered a change of tactics. He decided to halt the bombing of Britain and launch an attack against Russia. He betrayed Stalin and ignored the promises he had made. • This was a bold move that would prove to be an important turning point in the War.
The Nazis needed supplies and resources to continue the war so victory in the Soviet Union was essential • From Sept. 14th, 1942 – Feb. 2nd, 1943 – the Germans and Russians fought for the strategic city of Stalingrad. • Hitler and the Nazis lost the battle – 500 000 German and other troops were killed or taken prisoner.
December 7th 1941 – Pearl Harbour Japanese attack on US navy at Pearl Harbour brings the USA into the war against Japan and Germany. WHY? The Americans had banned the sale of oil to Japan after they attacked China. This threatened Japan’s plans to take over Southeast Asia
AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR • The US forces are first sent to Africa to help the British General Bernard Montgomery battle what is considered to be Germany’s best, General Erwin Rommel.
What happened in Italy? • The Allies forces invaded Italy in 1943. • The Italian people forced Mussolini from power, but Hitler rushed into Italy to stop the Allies.
Italian Campaign • The Allies including the Canadians fought and took Sicily from the German Army – Codenamed “Operation Husky” • The Canadians were forced to fight for every metre of the mountainous terrain as the Germans refused to give it up
Ortona • This was Canada’s most important victory in Italy.
The Liberation of Rome • Rome was declared an open city by the German army and the Allies took possession on June 4th.
Battle of the Atlantic • After entering World War II, the United States focused first on the war in Europe. • Defeating the Axis Powers depended on control of the seas. • The Atlantic needed to be kept safe for shipping so that soldiers and goods could be transported from North America to Europe. • Halifax was the major launching point for supplies and personnel.
D-Day: The Invasion of France • To end the war as quickly as possible, the Allies planned Operation Overlord—a large invasion of mainland France. • The Allies landed at Normandy on June 6, 1944—called D-Day—and began to march on France. • The Allies landed almost 1 million soldiers and 180,000 vehicles. • Canadian troops were assigned to take Juno Beach.
The Canadians on D-Day • Of the nearly 150,000 Allied troops who landed or parachuted into the invasion area, 14,000 were Canadians • The Royal Canadian Navy contributed 110 ships and 10,000 sailors in support of the landings while the R.C.A.F. had helped prepare the invasion by bombing targets inland • Canadians suffered 1074 casualties, including 359 killed.
After D-Day the Allies quickly advance through Europe as the Germany retreated. • Canadian troops were given the task of liberating the Netherlands. • In April of 1945 Hitler realized that the war was lost and committed suicide in his Berlin bunker.
The War in the Pacific • After early defeats in the Pacific, the United States gained the upper hand and began to fight its way island by island to Japan. • Canadian troops were forced to surrender the defence of Hong Kong. • It was estimated that 1 million Allied lives would be lost in the attack on Japan.