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Latin and Greek in Biology

Latin and Greek in Biology

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Latin and Greek in Biology

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  1. Latin and Greek in Biology Mrs. Penning Mr. McFadden Biology St. Paul Public Schools

  2. How does it work in science? • Latin and Greek prefixes, suffixes, and root words can be used to make an infinite amount of words

  3. Why were Latin and (old) Greek chosen for scientific terminology? • Both are more descriptive than English (as well as lots of other languages) • Both are old (“dead”) languages that are unspoken and won’t change

  4. Overview Learn Latin and Greek = Learn Biology micro Bio geo ren epi myo itis eco aqua

  5. #. Prefix/Suffix/Root • Meaning • Examples

  6. 1) bio- • “life” • biology, biologist, biosphere, biotechnology, biotic, biography, bioluminescence, biodiversity, symbiosis

  7. 2) -ology • “the study of” • biology, geology, dermatology, zoology

  8. 3) -ologist • “person who studies” • biologist,geologist, zoologist

  9. 4) scien- • “to know; knowing” • science, scientist, scientific, omniscient, conscience

  10. 5) geo- • “earth or rock” • geology, geologist, geotropism

  11. 6) -sphere • “globe or ball” • spherical, biosphere, atmosphere

  12. 7) gen-, -gen • “to bring to life; to create” • genesis, generator, generation, genetics, gene, antigen, mutagen, carcinogen

  13. 8) non-, in-, un- • “not” • nonliving, nonverbal, nonviolent, nonpolar, inactive, inefficient, intangible, unhealthy, unable

  14. 9) cyto-, -cyte • “cell” • cytology, cytologist, leukocyte, erythrocyte, endocytosis, exocytosis, osteocyte

  15. 10) -scope • “instrument or tool” • microscope, telescope, stethoscope, periscope, colonoscopy

  16. 11) micro- • “very small” • microbe, microscope, microbiology, microtubule

  17. 12) uni- • “one” • unicycle, unibrow, uniform, unite, unicellular

  18. 13) multi- • “many” • multicultural, multi-talented, multi-tasking, multicellular

  19. 14) cardi- • “heart” • ‘cardiac’ arrest, cardiovascular, pericardium

  20. 15) myo- • “muscle” • myocyte, myosin, myocardium, myopathy

  21. 16) hema-, hemo- • “blood” • hemoglobin, hemophilia, hematoma, hemolysis, hematite

  22. 17) cereb- • “brain” • cerebrum, cerebral, cerebellum

  23. 18) gastro- • “stomach” • gastrointestinal, gastric juices, gastritis

  24. 19) hepato- • “liver” • hepatitis, hepatic, hepatectomy

  25. 20) nephro- • “kidney” • nephron, nephritis, nephrotomy

  26. 21) ren- • “kidney” • renal (failure), rennin, renal

  27. 22) pulmo- • “lung” • pulmonary, CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)

  28. 23) epi- • “upon or above” • epidermis, epicenter, epiglottis, epidemic, epithelial (tissue), epiphyte

  29. 24) -derm- • “skin or covering” • dermatologist, epidermis, endoderm, echinoderm

  30. 25) -itis • “inflammation of ; swelling” • dermatitis, gingivitis, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, endocarditis

  31. 26) osteo- • “bone” • osteoporosis, osteology, osteocyte, periosteum

  32. 27) eco- • “habitat; environment” • ecology, ecosystem, ECOLAB

  33. 28) aqua- • “water” • aquarium, aquatic, aquatennial

  34. 29) terra- • “earth; land” • terrace, terrarium, terrestrial, terra firma

  35. 30) inter- • “between” • interview, intersection, interoffice (memo), interphase, interdependent, intervertebral

  36. 31) intra- • “within” • intravenous, intrauterine device (IUD), intracellular

  37. 32) extra- • “outside, beyond” • extraordinary, extravaganza, extracurricular, extraterrestrial (E.T.), extracellular (digestion), extrapolate

  38. 33) sym-/syn - • “together/with” • symphony, sympathy, symbiosis, synthetic, synapse, synchronize

  39. 34) ism- • “belief/ theory” • materialism, sexism, racism, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, gradualism

  40. 35) macro- • “larger” • macroscopic, macromolecule, macroeconomics

  41. 36) carbo- • “containing carbon” • carbon dioxide, carbohydrate, carbonize, carbonic (acid)

  42. 37) mon-, mono- • “one” • monopoly, monologue, monotone, monorail, monarchy, monomer, monosomy, monocot

  43. 38) di- • “two” • division, dialogue, diploid, dihybrid, dichotomous, dicot

  44. 39) sacch- • “sugar” • saccharin, monosaccharide, disaccharide

  45. 40) poly- • “many” • polygon, polygraph, polymer, polysaccharide, polypeptide, polygenic (trait)

  46. 41) lip- • “fat, oil, wax” • liposuction, lipid, lipid bilayer

  47. 42) -ose • “fullness, origin” (generally in biology refers to a “sugar or starch”) • sucrose, dextrose, glucose, lactose, cellulose

  48. 43) lact-, lacto- • “milk” • lactose (intolerant), lactate, lactobacillus, lactase

  49. 44) oxy- • “containing oxygen, O” • carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygenate, deoxygenate

  50. 45) de- • “removing” • denature (proteins), deoxyribose sugar, DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA), decompose