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Tourism impacts

Tourism impacts

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Tourism impacts

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  1. Tourism impacts

  2. Tourism impacts

  3. The next generation

  4. The technology fix - Ski Dubai , United Arab Emirates

  5. Or is the answer in Sustainable Destination Management?

  6. Sustainable Tourism and the role of Tourism in Sustainable Development • International declarations: Brundtland 1987; Agenda 21 - for tourism 1995. • Sustainable development: • ‘’Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (WCED, 1987)

  7. Sustainable Tourism • ‘Sustainable development is simply one step beyond what was traditionally termed conservation - wise use of resources. ..... development based on ‘acceptable’ levels of social and environmental change. Gunn, 1994.

  8. WTO definition of Sustainable Tourism ‘Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems’ (World Tourism Organisation, 1997)

  9. Break sustainable tourism down into three core elements • The holistic approach – environment, economy and society/culture • The time dimension – long term • Include all stakeholders

  10. CORE 1 – THE HOLISTIC APPROACH Sustainable tourism development sustainable in terms of – • Economy • Environment • Society and culture

  11. Sustainable tourism • The holy grail of tourism? • Tourism that is: • Environmentally • Economically • Socio-culturally • Sustainable

  12. Society & culture Environment Economy Integration, communication, collaboration

  13. Economic health Well-being of society Guest satisfaction protection of natural resources Healthy culture Balanced priorities in sustainable tourism

  14. Balancing Objectives in Tourism Development • For example, is it possible to balance and trade-off between the following objectives? • Economic Growth • Preservation of Ecology / Biodiversity • Preservation of Cultural Heritage • Social Welfare • Regional Development Imbalance

  15. Balancing Objectives in Tourism Development • The above objectives are often included in the ‘holistic’ approach to sustainable tourism development. (Muller, 1994.)

  16. BEST – Business Enterprises for Sustainable Tourism

  17. Ethics and tourismWhat is the role of the individual? • How do I behave when on holiday? • Do I interact with the local people and local environment from a basis of respect, or use them simply for my convenience? • Can I make a more positive contribution to the local economy? • How ethical are my tour company’s policies?

  18. Would you be more likely to book a holiday with a company if they had a written code of ethics? • Yes • No • Don’t know

  19. Would you be more likely to book a holiday with a company if they had a written code of ethics Tearfund (2002)

  20. Who is driving the ethics debate? • Global organisations (e.g. UNESCO, WTO, UNEP) • International NGOs (e.g. WTO, Tourism Concern) • Charities (e.g. VSO) • Christian organisations (e.g. Tearfund) • Industry organisations (e.g. AITO, ABTA)

  21. ARTICLE 1Tourism's contribution to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societiesARTICLE 2Tourism as a vehicle for individual and collective fulfilmentARTICLE 3Tourism, a factor of sustainable developmentARTICLE 4 Tourism, a user of the cultural heritage of mankind and contributor to its enhancement ARTICLE 5Tourism, a beneficial activity for host countries and communitiesARTICLE 6Obligations of stakeholders in tourism developmentARTICLE 7Right to tourismARTICE 8Liberty of tourist movementsARTICLE 9Rights of the workers and entrepreneurs in the tourism industry WTO Global Code of Ethics Principles See

  22. Issues of ethical concern for tour operators • Relationship with host community • Treatment of employees • Marketing of products • Attitude to the natural environment Weeden (2002)

  23. Utilising ethical credentials • Use of locally owned organisations • Keep group sizes small • Treat all employees fairly • Promote packages truthfully Weeden (2002)

  24. Using ethical credentials pays off Meyer et al. (2004)


  26. Ethical questions for you and your company • Would your guests be willing to pay more money for their holiday if workers at the destination were guaranteed good wages and working conditions? • Would your guests be willing to pay more money for their holiday if the hotel served locally produced food? • Would your guests be willing to pay more money for their holiday if some of the money went to a local charity?

  27. CORE 2 – TIME DEMENSION • Time dimension – long lasting (inter-generational equity) • ‘Tourism …viable over an indefinite period and does not degrade or alter the environment (human and physical)’ Butler 1993 • Ensure that productivity can be sustained into the long term future

  28. How long is long term? • What is the average business investment time scale? • What is the normal political timescale?

  29. Complication to core 2 – the present?? • Social equity dimension – (intra-generational equity) • spread wealth more evenly throughout current generations; throughout the world • Provide for a better level of fairness and opportunity between different countries

  30. CORE 3 - INCLUDE ALL STAKEHOLDERS • Holistic – includes all aspects and stakeholders • Cooperation, partnerships and compromises • Facilitate and engage public participation

  31. Participation: all interest groups affected by a development should be involved in the decision making process.

  32. The key stakeholders in sustainable tourism Tourism Industry Governmental Bodies The Host Community Tourists Sustainable Tourism Pressure Groups Voluntary Sector/NGOs Experts Media


  34. Solutions? - Destination management

  35. Destination Management or Marketing Organisations (DMO)? The concept of the DMO (where “M” stands for management rather than simply marketing)- a quite recent form of organizing the destination management. DMO - responsible for well-being of all aspects of the destination marketing is no longer the sole purpose

  36. Linking competitiveness with sustainability Ritchie and Crouch, (2003)

  37. 4 Pillars of sustainability (Ritchie & Crouch, 2003:44-47) • Ecological sustainability • Economic sustainability • Socio-cultural sustainability • Political (governance) sustainability

  38. Political sustainability (governance) • Political sustainability is rarely identified as one of the pillars of sustainability. • However-critical to the acceptability of any solution. • Problem lies on how one determines sustainability. • A philosophical question – a political debate. • Who decides? Power structures, elites and democracy. (Ritchie & Crouch 2003.)

  39. A framework for monitoring destination impacts Six factors • Economic and regional development benefits • Adverse environmental effects • Quality of life & employment opportunities • Improved community environment • Cultural erosion • Crime

  40. Core indicators of sustainable tourism • Site protection • Stress • Use intensity • Social impact • Development control • Waste management • Planning processes • Critical ecosystems • Consumer satisfaction • Local satisfaction • Tourism’s contribution • to local economy

  41. What is important in the definition of indicators? • Relevance to the issue • Data availability (capacity to collect and process) • Credibilityof the information • Clarityand understandability to users • Comparabilityover time and across jurisdictions or regions

  42. A WTO guidebook on indicators

  43. Other issues in sustainable tourism debate To name some of the key issues in the sustainable tourism debate • visitor management • concept of carrying capacity • role of public sector planning • role of industry • tourist education • private versus public transportation • value judgment and lack of factual evidence etc.

  44. Also - Links to Ecotourism Looks at - • policy frameworks; • conservation management frameworks; • WTO & ecotourism • Definitions of ecotourism

  45. Further websites to assist benchmarking your destination • United Nations Environment Program • See more about sustainable tourism from the following webpages: • • The impacts of tourism in environment: •

  46. Too much for a one day workshop!! • BUT for today, let’s concentrate on practical ways forward – what can you do?


  48. Thank You! Discussion .