Lesson 6 Traffic Safety Protecting People While Stabilizing The Incident
Identifying, Assessing & Managing Risk Upon approaching the scene: Identify hazards and develop a plan to protect the scene
Identifying, Assessing & Managing Risk Expect other drivers to make mistakes Consider the type of roadway you will be working on (i.e. freeway vs. city street) Weather conditions (dry vs. wet road or good vs. poor visibility) Time of day (or night) (scene and personal visibility and proper use of lighting)
Identifying, Assessing & Managing Risk What is Risk Assessment? “Assessing or determining the possibility of suffering harm or loss, and to what extent” This is the first step in determining your plan of action
Identifying, Assessing & Managing Risk What is Risk Management? “The development of strategy and tactical plans based on an accurate risk assessment taking into consideration current and potentially changing scene conditions”
Driver Reaction Time Components of reaction time Mental Processing Time: Sensation Perception / Recognition Situational Awareness Response Selection
Driver Reaction Time Components of reaction time Movement Time: The time required to perform the selected action
Driver Reaction Time Components of reaction time Device Response Time: The functional time of a mechanical device to activate
Temporary Traffic Control Zone Provides reasonably safe and efficient movement of traffic. Reasonably protects workers, responders to traffic incidents, and their equipment.
Temporary Traffic Control Zone Components of a TTC Zone Advance Warning Area Transition Area Activity Area Buffer Space Termination Area
Temporary Traffic Control Zone Advance Warning Area • Tells drivers what to expect ahead. • Typical distances for placement of advance warning signs on high speed roadways should be longer because drivers are conditioned to uninterrupted flow.
Temporary Traffic Control Zone Transition Area • Moves traffic out of its normal path and away from the activity area.
Temporary Traffic Control Zone Activity Area • This is where the work takes place. • This also includes your Buffer Space
Temporary Traffic Control Zone Buffer Space • Separates traffic from your work area. • Also provides some recovery area for an errant vehicle. • Neither work nor equipment storage should occur in the Buffer Space.
Temporary Traffic Control Zone Termination Area • Returns traffic back to their normal path beyond the incident scene. • Should include its own Buffer Space.
Traffic Control Devices • Used to warn or guide road users • Provides for the orderly movement of traffic
Traffic Control Devices Should meet 5 basic requirements: • Fulfill a need • Command attention • Convey a clear, simple meaning • Command respect from road users • Give adequate time for proper response
Channelizing Devices Traffic Cones
Channelizing Devices Minimize the possibility of the cones being blown over Double up on the cones to increase their weight if needed
Channelizing Devices Traffic cones should have a retro reflective band that is no less than 4 inches in height
Channelizing Devices Minimum traffic cone height of 28 inches
Channelizing Devices Placing a flare in front of the cone at night increases the visibility of the cone
Placement of Traffic Control Devices The road user should have adequate time to make a proper response in both day and night conditions
Placement of Traffic Control Devices Should be in a uniform and consistent manner
Placement of Traffic Control Devices Your apparatus is also a traffic control device
Placement of Apparatus • Place within the Activity Area • Uniform and consistent with other traffic control devices
Placement of Apparatus • Physical protection barrier to secondary collisions • Protection of the pump operator • Protection of the crews • Protection of the citizens
Placement of Apparatus Fire engines and other large apparatus • Park at a 45 degree angle • Exposes more surface area to absorb an impact from an errant vehicle • Provides a “wall” of protection
Placement of Apparatus • Park within the Activity Area • Downstream or in the shadow of the fire engine Transport vehicles
Placement of Apparatus Transport vehicles • Downstream: • Parallel with traffic • Ease of loading gurney into vehicle • Clear access to roadway when leaving for transport
Placement of Apparatus When the fire engine is to be staffed with a pump operator/engineer Park at a 45 degree angle with the pump panel (drivers side) facing the Activity Area
Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Common misconception: The more warning lights that are flashing, the better we can be seen
Night Time Visibility At the incident scene The reality is: The warning lights can be seen very well Drivers get “drawn in” to the lights Personnel visibility is reduced when they are overcome by excessive emergency lights
Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Turn off all unnecessary warning lights Excessive warning lights may: Cause a distraction to drivers ~ ~ ~ Act as a deadly attraction to drivers who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol
Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Turn off all unnecessary headlights When parked at the scene Excessive headlights may: Be blinding to oncoming traffic and Cause personnel to be nearly invisible to oncoming drivers when they stand or walk in-between the headlights and the oncoming traffic
Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Turn off all unnecessary headlights when parked at the scene
Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Use vehicle mounted floodlights to light the scene • Provides a safer working environment • Reduces distraction to traffic drivers caused by warning lights • Do not aim the floodlights into the path of traffic drivers • Ensure the floodlighting does not produce a disabling glare to traffic
Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Use vehicle mounted floodlights to light the scene
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety Training • Practice traffic safety risk assessments • Establish safe working environments
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety Emergency Responder Safety Apparel All personnel exposed to the risks of moving traffic shall wear a high visibility vest day or night
Key ElementsofPersonnel Safety Emergency Responder Safety Apparel • Provides more retro-reflective area for better visibility than firefighting turnout gear • Visibility of personnel is increased during daylight hours with the use of a high visibility vest • It’s the law!